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n. the maximum amount a person participating in a business can lose or be charged in case of claims against the company or its bankruptcy. A stockholder in a corporation can only lose his/her investment, and a limited partner can only lose his/her investment, but a general partner can be responsible for all the debts of the partnership. Parties to a contract can limit the amount each might owe the other, but cannot contract away the rights of a third party to make a claim.

See:corporationshareholderlimited partnershippartnershipliquidated damages

n. nick-named REIT, a real estate investment organization which finds investors and buys real property and gives each investor either a percentage interest in the property itself or an interest in a loan secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on the property. Usually the loan is used to develop the property and build upon it, and then there is a division of profits upon sale—if there is a profit.

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The Ultimate Guidto DEC

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When you think of leaders in the computing industry, your first thoughts probably turn to companies like Apple, Microsoft, and IBM. But flash back a few decades, and the leaders of those companies all wouldve gladly bowed down to Digital Equipment Corporation, or DEC, who began paving the way for everyone starting in 1957.

DEC identified a demand for more affordable and high-performing computing systems that could be used in scientific research and other technological settings. DEC introduced a mid-range computing solution, the minicomputer, at a time when the alternative was too bulky and costly for most people.

In addition to its extensive lines of minicomputers, it also became involved with software as well as the internet (in the very, very early days of the internet).

So, what happened to DEC? Why did all the success and industry dominance they had for roughly three decades just suddenly slip away? Most argue that it was a failure of the companys leadership to adapt to the changing direction that computing began to take in the late 1980s.

In order to understand how DEC eventually lost it all, its important to take a look back at how it all began and why such a monumental shift in the computing industry couldve been missed by such a critical leader in the space.

DECs story begins in 1957 with two men atMITwho had a theory and an idea for a business. It ends in roughly 1998 with the selling of the company to Compaq. Here is DECs journey.

While working together in the Lincoln Laboratory at MIT, Ken Olsen and Harlan Anderson came up with the idea for DEC. They took notice of how popular the interactive computing machines were with students who visited the lab, as opposed to the batch processing machines that users couldnt input data into or use for real-time feedback.

Olsen and Anderson also knew that these interactive machines could be made and sold cheaper, which would be another major draw for researchers and scientists who were craving the technology.

After creating their original business plan, Olsen and Anderson were advised to shift the focus of their company from one around computers to instead one focused on equipment. There were just too many concerns from investors about the future of computing, and so thats what they did. The plan for Digital Equipment Corporation was finalized and they received $70,000 to launch their new company.

In sticking with the theme of keeping expenses light (not only for customers but for the company as well), they set up shop in an old wool mill in Maynard, MA.

The first product DEC created and sold was its Digital Laboratory Module. Staying true to its business plan, the initial product lines DEC focused on were modules, or electronic components, that were mounted to circuit boards. By the end of that year, DEC sold $94,000 worth of its first product.

DEC began selling its first computer at the end of 1960. But it was aware of peoples reluctance to invest in computer technology at the time, so it named the computer a programmable data processor, or PDP. The first iteration of this product line (PDP-1) sold for $120,000 that year.

Throughout the remainder of the decade, DEC created over a dozen PDP variants.

DEC began the process of creating new models of the PDP that could be sold for much less than the original. For example, the PDP-4 was similar in most ways to the PDP-1, but it was slower and packaged differently, which is what enabled DEC to sell it for $65,000.

While continuing to release new PDPs into the market, DEC also charged forward in its delivery of new modules. The Flip Chip came out in 1964 and was meant to convert the PDP-4 to the PDP-7. Many of its subsequent module releases served a similar purpose: helping users convert their old computers to upgraded versions.

It was in this year when DEC released the PDP-8, which is widely recognized as the first successful commercial minicomputer. Part of this is due to the improvements made to this model, but a large reason for its commercial success was the price tag of $18,500 and the 50,000 customers they sold it to.

In the interim, DEC came up with a revamped version of their PDP line and released the PDP-11 minicomputer. Not only did it bring major upgraded features to their computing machines, it also was easier to use. By the time it stopped selling it in the 1990s, DEC sold over 600,000 of them, making it one of the most popular minicomputers ever.

In addition, the design of the computer, as well as its operating system, turned out to be immensely popular with other computing companies, that eventually ended up using it as inspiration for their own work.

DEC made its first move into the European market in 1971, setting up manufacturing in Ireland.

DEC became recognized as a Fortune 500 company.

After widespread success with its PDP-11, DEC made the move into high-end computers and launched the Virtual Address eXtension, or VAX. This new 32-bit minicomputer (or supermini) line aimed to provide users with a wide array of computing resources that would be more affordable, powerful, and smaller than what companies like IBM could offer at the time.

The Rainbow 100 was created and was DECs first attempt to enter the personal computing space.

DEC continued to stay busy during this time, regularly putting out new models of the VAX. The VAX 8600 came out in 1984 and became an instant bestseller.

DEC was recognized as one of the premier leaders in computing when it was named the second largest computer company, just behind IBM. At the time, it had generated over $11 billion in revenue and had over 120,000 employees.

DEC reported its first quarterly loss.

DEC released Alpha AXP, which was a 64-bit microprocessor created to solve the overly complicated circuit designs of its VAX computers and to ultimately speed up processing times.

DEC launched AltaVista, one of the first ever search engines for the Internet. It became incredibly popular with users. During the first day of its launch, AltaVista received 300,000 visits. Two years later, it received 80 million hits every day.

AlthoughAltaVistapersisted long past the end or, more accurately, the acquisition of DEC, it was eventually sold to Yahoo in 2003. By the time 2013 rolled around, it was gone.

Other computer companies began to make moves for the flailing DEC. Intel was the first to step in when it purchased DECs microprocessor plant in Hudson. But even that $1.5 billion wasnt enough to save the company.

The official end of DEC as a standalone company came in 1998 when it was acquired by Compaq for $9.6 billion. Unfortunately, Compaq didnt know what to do with DECs overseas business, and so it was inevitable that neither DEC nor Compaq would exist for much longer. That day came in 2002 when Hewlett-Packard acquired Compaq.

Its been many decades since the world was first introduced to DEC, and tech history buffs still enjoy talking about it.

Why? First, because it left such a lasting imprint on computing as we continue to know it, whether it was its contributions to computers, software, microchips, or even the internet itself.

Second, because there is an important lesson here that every computer company should carefully study if they dont want to fall victim to the same fate.

In a Quora thread that asked the question Why did Digital Equipment Corporation fail? it was interesting to see so many previous DEC employees and members of the MIT community speak up about what they noted during their tenure there. Almost unanimously, they supported the theoryalso commonly held by expertsthat the failure of the company ultimately fell to the leaders who were unable to foresee what was coming in personal computing and were not able to take decisive or quick enough action in time to save the company.

Perhaps the saddest thing about this is that DEC had long been considered the best and the inspiratioan for what so many after them set out to do. Its not like it hadnt made an attempt at personal computing when they released their Rainbow 100. So, how did it fail to see that the future of the mid-market minicomputer was waning and that a full shift over to personal computers was needed in order to ensure the companys longevity?

According toClayton Christensen, a professor at Harvard Business School, it wasnt a lack of trying that took down DEC. It was the inflexibility of the business model they had so long relied upon:

Digital Equipment Corp. had microprocessor technology, but its business model could not profitably sell a computer for less than $50,000. The technology trapped in a high-cost business model had no impact on the world, and in fact, the world ultimately killed Digital. But IBM Corp., with the very same processors at its disposal, set up a different business model in Florida that could make money at a $2,000 price point and 20% gross marginsand changed the world.

Regardless of why it happened or how the leadership behind DEC allowed it to happen, the legacy of this company will live on as it was willing to step up and introduce affordable and powerful computing solutions during a time when others were too afraid to. Small Business Reviews Done Differently

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We do not strive to be the biggest law firm our aim is to be the New Zealand law firm of choice for our clients most important corporate and commercial matters.

We areat the forefront of developing innovative ways of supplying legal resources. See for exampleThe Bench Watch this space for further innovations in the coming months.

We are experts in corporate law, commercial law, and technology law. Its what we do, and we do it exceptionally well. Clients benefit from our expertise in:

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Sarah is our practice manager and the first point of contact for account and business queries. She has experience working with law firms in Wellington, London and Grand Cayman.

We assist New Zealand clients with global ambitions, and international clients with their New Zealand business.

We have strong experience working with clients, law firms and other advisors in Australia, parts of Asia, North America, the UK and Europe. is a member of TAGLaw. TAGLaw is an international alliance of independent law firms with more than 155 member firms based in over 90 countries. Its 10,000+ lawyers work out of 380 offices to provide a full range of legal services to clients all over the world.

BrunoBordignonand Murray Whyte are our leadTAGLawcontacts.

Bruno has previously worked in Australia and the UK. He advises a wide variety of international clients on their New Zealand business, and regularly guides New Zealand clients with their foreign matters. Bruno has been a New Zealand TAGLaw contact since 2009 (including through his previous firm).

Murray has previously worked in Germany and Russia advising on international M&A transactions and contracts. He has advised on matters involving more than 50 countries. He maintains connections with clients and lawyers around the world. Murray is a member of the German-New Zealand Chamber of Commerce.

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Ice Resin Kit

Daily Market: Gold: $1250.45 Silver: $16.09

8oz Ice Resin Kit. Crystal clear and self-doming. Jewelers grade.

8oz Ice Resin Kit. Crystal clear and self-doming. Jewelers grade.

Ice Resin leaves a beautiful, clear, glass-like finish on jewelry that will last a lifetime! Its a jewelers grade 2-part epoxy that is self-doming when poured. Perfect for use in keepsake pendants andlockets.

Manufacturing Method:Other or Multiple

Notes:Kit includes 4oz of Resin, 4oz of Hardener, 12 cups, 12 stir sticks, 2 small nozzles and directions for use.Write A ReviewRecently ViewedSHOPChain


Doming is the application of a clear polyurethane resin (RAPIDOME) layer on a two dimensional surface creating a three dimensional crystal clear lens of up to 5mm in height to enhance the look and feel of your products.

RAPIDOMEtransforms the look and feel of a two dimensional surface into an impressive three dimensional object that enhances the value of the final product.

By enhancing the look and feel of a product, RAPIDOME has many applications across many industries.

Some examples of the many applications of RAPIDOME are: enhancement of product identification and branding using printed decals, enhancement of name and identification badges, enhancement of business cards, enhancement of point of sale imaging, arts and crafts manufacture, jewellery manufacture, ornament manufacture, promotional gifts manufacture, key ring manufacture, even the enhancement of photographs

The high surface tension of the product allows easy application as the product does not run over the edges of the domed item.

RAPIDOME does not yellow when exposed to UV light, is a very durable, tough and long lasting product, and is chemical, scratch and dent resistant.

How much RAPIDOME will I need to use?

This depends on the application. The height of the dome can be from a thin 1mm up to a high 5mm.

Firstly, calculate (or estimate) the area of the item to be domed in square CENTIMETRES. For a circle, the formula is 3.14 x radius x radius (Radius in CENTIMETRES). For a rectangle, the formula is length x breadth (in CENTIMETRES).

Next is to calculate the volume in CUBIC CENTIMETRES (Which is equal to millilitres – ml). For this you multiply the area as calculated above by a number between 0.10 (10mm – height in CENTIMETRES) and 0.50 (50mm – height in CENTIMETRES) depending on the thickness or height of your dome. (See first Paragraph). Some Examples:

Area = 3.14 x 2.5 x 2.5 = 19.625 cm² ( 2.5 = Radius of 50 mm circle in centimetres)

@ thickness of 1.5mm, Volume = 19.625 x 0.15 = 2.94 ml

@ thickness of 2.5mm, Volume = 19.625 x 0.25 = 4.91 ml

Area = 3.14 x 1.25 x 1.25 = 4.9 cm² ( 1.25 = Radius of 25 mm circle in centimetres)

@ thickness of 1.5mm, Volume = 4.9 x 0.15 = 0.74 ml

@ thickness of 1.5mm, Volume = 12.5 x 0.15 = 1.88 ml

@ thickness of 2.5mm, Volume = 12.5 x 0.25 = 3.13 ml

Same for the 600 ml, just divide the 600 ml by the ml calculated above.

What do I do if the RAPIDOME runs over the edge of the object?

Rapidome can be applied up to a maximum of 5mm, but this extreme height requires ideal conditions (and lots of practice). Normally a height between 0.5mm 2mm will be used and the RAPIDOME should not run over the edge of the object using this height. However, should the RAPIDOME run over the edges for whatever reason, this can be rectified by scraping excess RAPIDOME off the object with a blade. Then gently running the blade around the outside edges of the object will clean up the excess resin and allow the resin edge to form naturally again.

What is the difference between the SOFT and MEDIUM HARD specification of RAPIDOME?

The main differences between the two specifications relate to the flexibility and feel of finished product. SOFT RAPIDOME dries to a slight tacky feel (applying a furniture polish such as Mr Sheen will remove the tackiness) and remains extremely flexible. It is ideal where the domed items will be applied to uneven surfaces. MEDIUM HARD RAPIDOME dries to a non-tacky feel and is more rigid that SOFT but remains flexible. It is ideal in situations where some rigidity is required and can be applied to uneven surfaces.

RAPIDOME domed items if flexed, will always return back to their original domed shape.

Is there a difference in the cost to dome when using the RAPIDOME 600 rather than using the RAPIDOME 50ml Manual dispensing system?

Moving up from the 50ml manual dispensing system to the RAPIDOME 600 will lower the cost to dome per unit by approximately 35% relative to the 50ml system. It is advisable when moving up to the RAPIDOME 600 that the 50ml system is retained for the small batch runs and end of runs touch up.

What if I dont use all the RAPIDOME in one application?

RAPIDOME is supplied in sealed packets to ensure that it is not contaminated by moisture. These sealed packets, if kept at a temperature of less then 25 degrees, could be stored for up to 5 years.

Once the sealed packet is opened, the cartridge would have a shelf life of a few days if stored in an environment where the temperature is less than 23◦ with a relative humidity of less than 40%. If storage is required for longer periods, place the unused cartridges in a Zip Lock plastic bag and seal it with as little air inside as possible. Place the plastic bag in a refrigerator until needed. When removing from the refrigerator, allow the product to warm up to room temperature before opening the plastic bag.

What are the ideal conditions for doming?

RAPIDOME will render great results in low humidity conditions (40% and less), and ambient temperature between 16◦ and 23◦. RAPIDOME cures to tacky within one hour, and is set in 2 hours. RAPIDOME can be cured in a preheated oven at 40◦ for twenty minutes to eliminate any chance of bubbles occurring.

RAPIDOME does not like moisture of any form, high humidity in the air, blowing on the product etc Moisture will manifest itself as bubbles in the resin.

Everything looked great last night why has this dome exploded?

Polyurethane resins react violently with moisture this is a slow process and it normally takes 4-5 hours to occur. It can take many forms; a worse case scenario is illustrated here. Ninety percent of the time, small bubbles will appear the next morning, or the surface of the decal will remain sticky as if not set properly. The first is caused by moisture on the surface of the decal, and the later by moisture on the surface of the dome after doming. To avoid this, wipe the decal with a clean dry cloth before doming and do not breathe on or touch the decal with your fingers.Ideally you should dome in a clean, dry and cool room.

If you have access to an oven, simply place the glass sheet with the domed decals in an oven which has been preheated to about 40◦C for 20 minutes. It will then be set and ready to ship.

RAPIDOME is safe when used as per the label, instructions and the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) instructs.

What is the plural of

What is the plural of feedback? Can you ever use feedbacks?

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, MA in Linguistics from BYU, 8 years working in research for language pedagogy.

Feedback is a mass (or non-count, or uncountable) noun. As such, it has no plural form. You can have some feedback or a lot of feedback, but you cant have *two feedbacks.

Unlike some other common mass nouns (like water), feedback is apuremass noun- it has no countable meanings or interpretations. Thus, you can say two waters, implicitly referring to two containers / orders / types of water, but the same doesnt work for feedback. If you want to pluralize it, you have to attach it to an explicit measure word- two bunches of feedback, two loads of feedback, two waves of feedback, or even just two pieces of feedback.

s answer reminded me of an additional meaning of feedback that I had forgotten about. I had in mind feedback in the sense of user feedback and similar. That sense has no countable interpretations (at least, not in my dialect). When used as a shorthand for feedback loop, however, that sense of the word can be implicitly quantified, as in Marks example.

Is this answer still relevant and up to date?

Related QuestionsMore Answers Below

What is the plural of leaf? Is it leafs or leaves?

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Thishintmust always remember. Definitely,abstract nounscant be made plural by simply adding S to form plural nouns.It can only be made plural by adding appropriate determiners or quantifiers with them.

The feedback you provide will help us show you more relevant content in the future.

, Native (Australian) English speaker

Its fundamentally uncountable but people do occasionally use it as plural, e.g.,

Perspective on Abrupt climate Change

There are also negative feedbacks, […] What are some examples of positive feedbacks in the climate system? […] Vegetation feedbacks […]

This usage is according to the general rule that an uncountable noun can be used as plural with the meaning types of…. Compare food, which is also fundamentally uncountable but is routinely used as plural by this same rule: Fatty foods upset my stomach.=FattyIs this answer still relevant and up to date?

Do you think these two devices are equivalent? I have good feedback from this one, but the other one gave me extra information. Which of thesefeedbacksis most useful? (Strange, but not impossible English is very flexible.)

In my opinion you could not ever use feedbacks.

Example: Multiple instances of feedback not multiple feedbacks.

You would distinguish more than one feedback with qualifiers like in my example above.

The wordfeedbackis invariable as to grammatical Number. If plurality must be expressed, say,examplesorinstances of feedback.

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Still have a question? Ask your own!

What is the plural of leaf? Is it leafs or leaves?

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Why do we use I as a plural pronoun?

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Who Were You In Your Past Life?

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You always knew you were an Austrian Empress in a previous life, right? Or maybe a badass pirate? Lets see if your past-life self is really as cool as you imagine…

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It should be followed and respected

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