New York City

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Clockwise, from top:Midtown ManhattanTimes Square, theUnisphereinQueens, theBrooklyn BridgeLower ManhattanwithOne World Trade CenterCentral Park, the headquarters of theUnited Nations, and theStatue of Liberty

New York City(simplyNew York, short formNYC) is the largestcityin theUnited Statesand theState of New York. Over 8 million people live in it, and over 22 million people live in the biggerNew York metropolitan area. It is in the south end of the state ofNew York, which is in thenortheastern United States. It is the financial capital of the US since it is home to the nationsstock marketWall Street, and theOne World Trade Center. It is also the home of theUnited Nations Headquarters.

The oldestpartof the city, the island ofManhattan, still has its originalname. Although Native people such as the Lenape and Canarsees had lived there for many thousands of years, New York City was first explored byEuropeansin the 1500s.FlorentineexplorerGiovanni da Verrazzanofound the entrance to New York Harbor in the year 1524 and English explorerHenry Hudsonnamed theHudson Riverin 1609.

New York City was settled by Europeans fromThe Netherlandsin 1624. The Dutch called the whole area of New YorkNieuw Nederland(New Netherland) and they named afortand town on the south end of Manhattan IslandNieuw Amsterdam(New Amsterdam),[13]after the capital city of the Netherlands, which was to become present-day New York. The English took over the colony in 1664 during the secondAnglo-Dutch War. They changed the name toNew York, to honor theDuke of York, who later became KingJames II of England. The Dutch surrendered Nieuw Amsterdam without fighting.

By the time the English took New York, there were many other Dutch towns in what would become New York City, including Breukelen (Brooklyn), Vlissingen (Flushing), and Nieuw Haarlem (Harlem). There were already some English towns in the area also, such as Gravesend in Brooklyn and Newtown in Queens.Dutch, English and other people had been living together in New York for a long time.

New York quickly grew to become a large and important port city. The importantBattle of Long Islandof theAmerican Revolutionwas fought in Brooklyn in 1776. New York was the capital of the United States under theArticles of Confederationfrom 1785 to 1788. When theUS Constitutionwas made, it stayed as the capital from 1789 until 1790.[14]

In 1898, the cities of New York and Brooklyn came together with the Bronx, Staten Island, and the western towns in Queens County to make Greater New York. This is the total area of the City of New York today. Around this time, many newimmigrantscame into New York City. They came in atEllis Island, an island in New Yorks harbor near theStatue of Liberty. Many of them then moved to theLower East Sideneighborhood in Manhattan, which had over a million people living in just a few square miles.

Early in the twentieth century, with better transportation, more people moved to outer parts of the greater city, and manycommutedto Manhattan. Manyskyscrapersand other big buildings were put up to provide places to work.

Most of New York City is on three islands near theAtlantic Ocean, although one part is on the mainland ofNorth America. The city includes all ofManhattan IslandandStaten Island, and the western end ofLong Island. There are also many smaller islands.

The city is divided into five major parts calledboroughs. Each one is also a county. They are:

Water divides several parts of the city. Part of theHudson Riverforms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx on one side, and the State ofNew Jerseyon the other side. TheEast Riverforms the border between Manhattan on one side, and Brooklyn and Queens on the other side. The Harlem River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx (except for a small part of Manhattan that is on the mainland). Part ofLong Island Soundseparates the Bronx and Queens. Newtown Creek is part of the border between Brooklyn and Queens. Some parts of the city are very separate from the others because of water, such asRockawayin Queens andCity Islandin the Bronx. A small piece of land in Manhattan is international territory and belongs to theUnited Nations Headquarters.

The hallmark of New York city is its manyskyscrapers, especially in Manhattan. In New York City there are about 5600 skyscrapers. 48 of them are over 200 metres tall, which is the highest number of skyscrapers in one area in the world.

New Yorks climate is betweenhumid subtropicaland humidcontinental. The hottest temperature ever in New York City is 41C (106F) and the coldest temperature ever is -23C (-11.1-13F). In 2012,Hurricane Sandyhit New York City, causing part of Manhattan to losepower. New York City gets somesnowin winter.

New York City currently has over 8 million people. Over 18 million people live in theNew York metropolitan areaincluding the city. The majority of the people in New York City belong toethnic groupsthat are minorities in the US. New York City has had large numbers of immigrants for centuries. In the early 19th Century, they came fromIrelandandGermany. Later in the 19th century, they came fromItalyRussiaandEastern Europe. Today, many are fromPuerto RicoHaiti, theDominican RepublicandColombia.

The mayor of New York isBill de Blasio, aDemocrat. The city also has a City Council that makes some local laws. Most laws in New York City are set by the state government inAlbany.

Subway transportation is provided by theNew York City Subwaysystem, one of the biggest in the world.[19]Pennsylvania Station, the busiesttrain stationin the United States, is here.[20]

John F. Kennedy International Airport, which is in theQueensborough of New York, is one of the busiestairportsin the United States.

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Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.

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Former capitals of the United States

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17th century establishments in New York

This page was last changed on 28 June 2018, at 09:05.

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