Civil Rights Laws RegulationExecutive Orderand related Other Guidance

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Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP)

Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR)

The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP)

Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

National School Lunch Program (NSLP)

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)

Farmers Market Nutrition Program (FMNP)

Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP)

Food & Nutrition Information Center

National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research

FNS Nondiscrimination Statement (For State/Local Agency Use)

USDA Guidance for Filing Discrimination Complaints

Learn about Alternative Dispute Resolution

FNS Data Posted Pursuant to the No Fear Act

About the FNS Civil Rights Division

Civil Rights Laws, Regulations, Executive Orders and related Other Guidance

, issued Nov. 8, 2005, The purpose of this Instruction is to establish and convey policy and provide guidance and direction to the USDA Food and Nutrition Service and its recipients and customers, and ensure compliance with and enforcement of the prohibition against discrimination in all FNS nutrition programs and activities, whether federally funded in whole or not.

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

, 42 U.S.C. 2000d to 2000d-6, which prohibits discrimination based on race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving Federal financial assistance; and USDA Implementing Regulation, 7 CFR Part 15, Subpart A and Subpart C.

(28 CFR Part 35, Title II, Subtitle A), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in all services, programs, and activities provided to the public by State and local governments, except public transportation services.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

(20 U.S.C. 1681 et. seq.), which prohibits discrimination based on sex under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance; and USDA Implementing Regulation, 7 CFR Part 15 a.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

, which prohibits discrimination based on disability; and USDA Implementing Regulation, 7 CFR Part 15 b.

(45 CFR Part 91), which prohibits discrimination based on age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance.

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA)

, and Department of Justice (DOJ) Memorandum dated January 28, 1999, entitled, Policy Guidance Document — Enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Related Statutes in Block Grant Type Programs.

Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987

, which clarifies the intent of Congress as it relates to the scope of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and related nondiscrimination statutes to ensure nondiscrimination in all programs and activities of a recipient, whether those programs and activities are federally funded or not.

, as amended. The Supplemental Food Assistance Program (formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) is an entitlement program available to all low-income individuals and families who meet the income, resource, and eligibility requirements as specified under the Act and corresponding regulations. The Act prohibits discrimination against any applicant or participant in any aspect of program administration for reasons of age, race, color, sex, handicap, religious creed, national origin, or political beliefs.

Enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

— National Origin Discrimination Against Persons With Limited English Proficiency, 65 F.R. 50123, August 16, 2000. This is the Federal Register cite for Department of Justice guidance for Executive Order 13166, Improving Access To Services For Persons With Limited English Proficiency, signed on August 11, 2000.

Additional authorities can be found in the specific Program Appendices of the FNS 113-1 Instruction.

USDA Departmental Regulation 4330-2

, Activities Receiving USDA Financial Assistance, ensures compliance with and enforcement of the prohibition against discrimination in programs and activities funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

, Equal Opportunity for Religious Organizations, implements executive branch policy that, within the framework of constitutional church-State guidelines, religiously affiliated (or faith-based) organizations should be able to compete on an equal footing with other organizations for USDA assistance.

USDA Civil Rights Accountability Policy and Procedures

establishes the civil rights accountability policy and procedures for ensuring that appropriate disciplinary or corrective actions are taken when discrimination, retaliation, civil rights violations, or related misconduct occurs.

More USDA Civil Rights Directives & Authorities

Dietary Diseases

Chickens Raised for Meat

Ducks Raised for Meat Feathers

Rabbits Raised for Meat

Sheep and Goats Raised for Meat Milk

Turkeys Raised for Meat

Child Labor Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

Chocolate: Child Labor Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

Chocolate List: Our Research Recommendations

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Nanofoods

Chocolate List: Our Research Recommendations

Food Chain: Vegan Retention Newsletter

Wine List: Our Research Recommendations

Chickens Raised for Meat

Ducks Raised for Meat Feathers

Rabbits Raised for Meat

Sheep and Goats Raised for Meat Milk

Turkeys Raised for Meat

Child Labor Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

Chocolate: Child Labor Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

Chocolate List: Our Research Recommendations

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Nanofoods

Chocolate List: Our Research Recommendations

Food Chain: Vegan Retention Newsletter

Wine List: Our Research Recommendations

While the causes of coronary heart disease and diabetes may vary, scientific evidence from dietary studies has linked the consumption of animal products to these deadly ailments. Additional research has correlated consumingveganfoods (plant based) with a lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, and a whole host of other chronic and debilitating disorders.[1]For some people, improving their diet can be as simple as deciding to eat healthier foods, but for others it can be much more challengingespecially if they have limited or no access to healthy foods like fresh produce and whole grains in the areas where they live.

More than one-third of US adults have some form of cardiovascular disease,[2]which is the leading cause of death in the US, and 8.3 percent of the population suffers from type 2 diabetes.[3]Adults with diabetes are also at high risk for cardiovascular disease, with 65 percent of diabetes sufferers dying from heart disease or stroke. Unhealthy dietary habits and a lack of physical activity play major roles in the development and progression of both heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

The numbers of those suffering and dying from heart disease and type 2 diabetes are even more staggering among people of color. A national survey taken by the Office of Minority Health, under the auspices of the US Department of Health & Human Services, has shown that, Mexican Americans are almost twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with diabetes by a physician.[4]Physician diagnoses of diabetes for African American adults have also been shown to be twice as likely as non-Hispanic white adults, and moreover, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders are three times more likely.[5][6]Native American, African American and Hispanic diabetics also die earlier than white diabetics (with Asians, as a whole, the only group that lives longer than whites). The diabetes death rate for African Americans is 39.5 per 100,000, an incidence that is more than double the diabetes rate for whites.[7]One probable cause of this disparity is that communities of color are more likely to be located infood deserts, which are geographic areas where residents access to affordable, healthy food options is restricted or nonexistent due to the absence of grocery stores within convenient traveling distance.

While many types of heart disease are influenced by diet, coronary artery disease is the variety most directly affected by peoples eating habits. High blood cholesterol, excessive dietary cholesterol, saturated fats, high blood pressure, and smoking are all known to damage the arterial lining. When arteries are damaged, the body repairs injuries by patching over the lining, but with chronic damage, cellular debris accumulates and divides as more layers are added. This debris narrows arterial passages, reducing the flow of blood and oxygen to either the heart (resulting in heart attack) or the brain (leading to stroke).

As 25 percent of blood cholesterol comes from diet, people can greatly reduce this damage by eating foods containing no cholesterol. Whereas all animal-based food products contain cholesterol, all plant-based foods are naturally cholesterol-free. The average person in the US eats more than 200 pounds of meat each year, which is a major factor in the high incidence of heart diseases.[9]In addition to large amounts of dietary cholesterol, meat and other animal products also contain high levels of saturated fats that raise blood cholesterol. According to the American Heart Association, Saturated fats and trans fats raise blood cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol also raises blood cholesterol. A high level of cholesterol in the blood is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which leads to heart attack, and also increases the risk of stroke.[10]

Because cholesterol cannot be dissolved in the blood, the body must transport excess amounts to and from the cells by lipoproteins. A high HDL count (High Density Lipoprotein) is good because HDL cleans the blood of cholesterol and fats. High levels of LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) can indicate trouble because it signifies an excess of cholesterol in the bloodstream which could potentially clog arteries. Low levels of HDL (less than 40 mg/dL) also increase the risk of arterial blockage. The optimal LDL number varies according to your level of health. Your doctor can perform a routine blood test to determine your cholesterol level.[11]

Some people seem to maintain healthy blood levels no matter what they eat. In any discussion about heart disease, everyone seems to know one of these people who eats whatever they want, is 85 years old, and is still doing their three-mile walk every morning. The explanation for this is that some peoples bodies have a higher capacity for metabolizing saturated fat and cholesterol from food. However, even if you are not one of these people, you can easily control your cholesterol level and radically reduce your risk for heart disease by eating avegandiet.

Type 2 diabetes was originally known as adult-onset diabetes because it was almost unheard of among people under 40 years old only two decades ago. However, today type 2 diabetes is being diagnosed in adolescents with increasing frequency.Medical experts estimate that type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

There is a strong correlation between type 2 diabetes and excess body weight, with about 80 percent of people who develop the disease being obese.[14]This is because the bodys ability to balance blood sugar with insulin decreases as weight increases beyond a healthy level, making the cells more resistant to insulin. Higher levels of dietary saturated and trans fats therefore increase the risk for both heart disease and diabetes. In the US, nearly 65 percent of those with diabetes will die from heart disease, and diabetics often suffer serious health complications such as kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage, and reduced blood flow to the lower extremities that can require amputation of the feet or legs.[15][16]

Dietary improvements, weight loss and exercise are all essential to preventing the onset of full-blown diabetes that occurs within 5 years for many diagnosed with prediabetes.[17]The good news is that diabetics and pre-diabetics can effectively avert, manage or even reverse diabetes through diet.[18]This can be done by eliminating highly-refined, processed white foods, sugar laden snacks, and trans fats while increasing fiber-rich plant-based foods like whole grains, vegetables, and nuts which are low in saturated fats and naturally cholesterol-free.[19]

The official position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the worlds largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, is that healthy vegan and vegetarian diets can help prevent and treat chronic diseases including heart disease, cancer, obesity and diabetes.

According to the ADA, Vegetarian diets tend to be lower in saturated fat and cholesterol and have higher levels of dietary fiber, magnesium and potassium, vitamins C and E, folate, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals. These nutritional differences may explain some of the health advantages of those following a varied, balanced vegetarian diet. The report also stated that plant-based diets are appropriate for people of all ages and activity levels, including pregnant and nursing mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and athletes.[20]

There is a substantial body of scientific evidence supporting the ADAs endorsement of eating vegan and vegetarian as healthy and disease-fighting. For example, a lead surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn, started a study in 1985 that ultimately proved that a low-fat, plant-based diet could significantly lower patients blood cholesterol levelsby an average of over 100 mg/dLand open clogged arteries.[21]

However you slice the facts and figures, it is clear that coronary heart disease and diabetes stem from the same risk factorseating animal products and processed foods, unhealthy weight gain, and lack of exercise. People can significantly reduce their risk factors for these and other diseases by making healthy lifestyle choices.

You may think that changing what you eat will be difficult because it can be tied to your moods, your health or your economic and social circumstances, and living in afood desertcan make it even more challenging. However, what you eat can prevent or reduce your risk of dietary diseases and premature death, so choosing plant-based foods can truly be empowering, healing and even life-saving.

[1] Ogden, Cynthia L., Carroll, Margaret D., et al. Obesity Among Adults in the United States. Centers for Disease Control, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. 2007.

[2] Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics2013 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. American Heart Association, Inc. 2012

[3] Diabetes Statistics. American Diabetes Association.

[4] Diabetes and Hispanic Americans. The Office of Minority Health. 2010.

[5] Diabetes and African Americans. The Office of Minority Health. 2009.

[6] Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. The Office of Minority Health. 2012.

[7] Office of Minority Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 8/23/17 from

[8] Ornish, Dean. Dr. Dean Ornishs Program for Reversing Heart Disease: The Only System Scientifically Proven to Reverse Heart Disease Without Drugs or Surgery. Ivy Books: 1995. p. 80. (5/18/11)

[9] Adler, Ben. Are Cows Worse Than Cars?. The American Prospect. December 3, 2008

[10] Why Cholesterol Matters. American Heart Association.

[11] Good vs. Bad Cholesterol. American Heart Association. May 2, 2011.

[12] Reinehr, Thomas. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents. World Journal of Diabetes. 2013.

[13] Fast Facts, Data and Statistics About Diabetes. American Diabetes Association. 2013.

[14] Bloomgarden, Z. American Diabetes Association Annual Meeting, 1999: diabetes and obesity. Diabetes Care v. 23, p. 118124, 2000.

[15] The Link Between Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. National Diabetes Education Program. 2007. Retrieved 3/21/2013 from

[16] Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. American Heart Association. 2012.

[17] About Prediabetes & Type 2 Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control. 2017.

[18] Barnard, Neal. Dr. Neal Barnards Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System for Reversing Diabetes without Drugs. Rodale Books: 2008. (5/11/11)

[19] Metabolic syndrome: Insulin resistance syndrome; Syndrome X. PubMed Health. April 19, 2010.

[20] Appropriate Planned Vegetarian Diets Are Healthful, May Help in Disease Prevention and Treatment, American Dietetic Association. American Dietetic Association. July 01, 2009.

[21] Esselstyn, Caldwell. Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease: The Revolutionary, Scientifically Proven, Nutrition-Based Cure. Avery Trade: 2008. (5/11/11)

Chickens Raised for Meat

Ducks Raised for Meat Feathers

Rabbits Raised for Meat

Sheep and Goats Raised for Meat Milk

Turkeys Raised for Meat

Child Labor Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

Chocolate: Child Labor Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

Chocolate List: Our Research Recommendations

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Nanofoods

Chocolate List: Our Research Recommendations

Food Chain: Vegan Retention Newsletter

Wine List: Our Research Recommendations

Food Empowerment Projects Chocolate List is available as afreeappfor your smart phone (or seeour chocolate listwebpage).

Child nutrition

Nutritional experiences in early life can have long-lasting consequences. To encourage the adoption of healthy eating habits, this topic explains the usual development of eating habits and how to distinguish common and often temporary eating problems from chronic disorders.

Chrisa Arcan, PhD, Meg Bruening, MPh, RD, Mary Story, PhD

While multiple factors influence eating behaviours and food choices of youth, two potent forces are television (TV) viewing and exposure to TV food advertising. In the United States, children and adolescents watch TV for almost four and a half hours each day.1During this time,  children between the ages of 2 to 12 are exposed to up to a total of 38 minutes of advertising each day. Food advertising accounts for half of all advertising time in childrens TV programs. Children between 2 to 7 years see 12 food ads and those between 8 to 12 years see 21 food ads each day, or 7,609 ads each year.2While some data indicate that food advertising to young children has decreased since a peak in 2004,3the number of food advertisements and the types of foods advertised remains disturbing.

A major determinant of food preferences is taste. Eating habits and taste preference develop early in life and remain relatively stable through young adulthood.4,5As taste preferences are acquired through learning processes6including repeated exposure and positive messaging about various foods, exposure to TV viewing early in life can have a marking lifelong influence in eating practices.

Food and beverage marketing and childrens eating behaviours

Food and beverage marketing is a major factor that influences childrens food preferences and purchasing requests.6-8Marketers use many avenues to reach children with their messages such as using popular cartoon characters and toy giveaways to increase the pester-power of youth.9-11Billboards, in-school advertisements, TV commercials, product placement in television shows/movies/video games and in grocery stores, Internet websites and games, and smart phone applications are often used to deliver messages and engage youth.6,9While technology and advertising techniques are changing, television remains the most prominent method of marketing food and beverages to youth, especially for those in early childhood.3,12Annually, the food and beverage industry spends $1.23 billion on marketing food and beverages to children under the age of 12 years.13

Exposure to unhealthy TV food marketing

The diets of American children are inadequate in nutrient-dense foods (i.e., fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and whole grains), and are high in energy-dense foods and beverages (i.e., chips, fast food, soda). More than any other foods/beverages, children are exposed to marketing messages for unhealthy foods, such as sugary breakfast cereals, fast food restaurants and snack foods such as chips, desserts, candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and yogurt.3,14Exposure to unhealthy foods through TV marketing has been linked to increased preferences for marketed foods.7,10,15Since most of childrens food preferences are formed during early childhood16children are at risk for forming life-long preferences for foods laden in calories, fat, and added sugars and, thus, are also at increased risk for obesity due to TV food marketing practices.6,15,17

Influence of TV viewing and advertising on eating behaviours of children

As one-third of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight or obese, it is critical to examine the extent to which TV viewing and TV food advertising negatively influence current and future eating behaviours among children and adolescents. It is also important to discuss potential regulations that can protect children from TV ads and deceptive marketing. Finally, given the ubiquitous nature of TV advertising, implications for policy, parents and service providers will be discussed.

Is there an association between TV viewing and advertising and eating behaviours?

Is there a difference in exposure to TV advertising among various racial groups?

Are TV viewing and TV food advertising associated with diet-related health issues such as obesity in children?

Are policies and recent industry self-regulation of TV advertising effective in influencing eating behaviours of children?

The association between TV viewing / advertising and childrens eating behaviours

It has been documented that among young children, TV viewing is significantly associated with increased consumption of unhealthy foods, including fast food,18increased requests of foods seen on TV, and more positive attitudes toward unhealthy foods.8,19The Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee conducted a systematic review of the scientific evidence and concluded that TV advertising influences the food preferences, purchase requests and diets, at least of children under age 12 years.6This evidence is more apparent in younger groups as more studies have been conducted with younger children than with adolescents.

Recent cross-sectional studies with young children have shown that exposure to food advertising was associated with increased consumption of advertised brands, energy-dense foods, soda and fast food,20,21but overall food consumption was only related to television viewing and not to advertising exposure in some studies.20There are few prospective studies supporting the negative impact of TV viewing on dietary behaviours; an increase of 167 kcal/day was found per each hour of increase in TV viewing among 11 year old children.22The only study with older adolescents found that those who were heavy TV viewers during high school had less healthful eating habits during the transition to young adulthood.23

Several experimental studies have demonstrated the effect of TV food advertising on increasing food intake.4,15,24,25In a recent experiment, elementary school-aged children who saw unhealthy food advertising while watching a childrens cartoon program consumed 45% more snacks than the group of children who watched the program with non-food advertising.4Conversely, childrens attitudes and beliefs toward healthy foods were positively impacted by advertisements of healthy foods, but these positive effects were reduced when advertisements of unhealthy foods were shown alongside healthy foods.8

Ethnic minority exposure to TV viewing and advertising

Recent findings indicate that food marketing to ethnic minority groups has increased in the past decade.26There are racial disparities in media use and the greatest differences are for TV time.1However, research on TV viewing and food advertising practices targeting ethnic minority populations is still scarce. The few available studies show that a higher proportion of food advertisements seen by black children are for fast food restaurants or they are higher in sugar than advertisements seen by white children.14,27-29Hispanic preschool children see almost 300 advertisements for fast foods each year on Spanish-language channels alone.30Given the high rates of overweight and obesity among minority children and the higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by African American and Hispanic31than white children, these findings are especially concerning.

Although there is a substantial scientific evidence demonstrating the link between duration of TV viewing and childrenadiposityas well as TV viewing behaviour and future adiposity,18,32fewer studies have shown a direct association between exposure to TV advertisement and obesity. Studies have also found a link between fast food restaurant advertising and body mass index,33indicating that if fast food advertising was banned, it would reduce the number of overweight 3 to 11 year old children by 18%.33Given the challenges involved in directly assessing the effect of advertising on obesity, simulation studies have been conducted. According to these studies, in the absence of TV advertising for food, the rate of overweight and obesity for 6 to 12 year old children would have been reduced by about 25% and 40%, respectively.34,35

The role of family on exposure to TV viewing and advertising

Family communication and media education is an important component in mediating the negative effects of advertising on childrens dietary behaviours. Although limited research exists in this area, the findings indicate that parental communication about advertising and setting rules about food consumption was more successful in reducing energy-dense food consumption by their children than open discussion about consumption.36However it was more effective when parents imposed restrictions of advertising exposure to pre-school and early elementary school children than to older children.36

Policies to limit television food advertising

The U.S. has a few regulations regarding TV food and beverage advertising to children, including industry self-regulatory policies. However, federal agencies have limited power to regulate against unfair and deceptive advertising practices to children.37In 2006, in partnership with the Council of Better Business Bureaus Childrens Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI), a coalition of food companies pledged to improve the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children under the age of 12 years.38Also, the IOM committee has offered 10 recommendations to address activities by the food industry and public sector to support a healthful diet to children and adolescents.6A review evaluating the progress made by industry stakeholders in marketing healthful foods to children revealed that food and beverage companies made some progress in promoting healthier products, but that limited progress was made by restaurants, industry trade associations and the media.38Despite the reported progress, overall TV food advertising to young children has increased by 9% between 2008 and 2010.39In addition, more than a quarter of all food/beverage advertising to children is from companies that do not participate in the coalition, including the majority of fast food establishments.38,40

While progress has been made in assessing the degree of exposure and content of TV advertisement to children and adolescents, more research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the exposure of TV advertisement and dietary choices of children. Also, there are research gaps on the effect of healthy food/beverage advertisement on the consumption of these foods. A benefit to policy initiatives will be to understand whether increased exposure to healthy food advertisement would cause a shift in childrens consumption and preference for healthy foods and beverages. Family plays an important role, especially during the formative years, in modeling behaviour and enforcing rules and restrictions. Therefore, more research is needed to unveil the effects of parental communication styles relative to consumer-related issues on childrens food choices. In addition, targeting parents to increase awareness about the food industrys marketing practices is needed.41The effectiveness of the food industrys self regulation initiative has yet to be established, therefore, further studies are essential to evaluate the advertising activities of the participating companies.

Children and adolescents spend a considerable amount of time watching television. As a result, youth are exposed to a large number of food and beverage advertisements each day. Among ethnic minority groups, this exposure is even higher. Television viewing is associated with unhealthy food consumption among children. There is sufficient evidence that TV advertising influences the food preferences, purchase requests and diets of children under the age of 12 years. Experimental studies supported the causal relationship of food advertising on childrens eating behaviours, demonstrating that immediately following the food commercials young children were more likely to increase their caloric intake and snack foods. Although research is limited in the area of parental communication about food advertising, it has been shown that parental communication about food advertising and setting restrictions on advertising exposure protects against energy-dense food consumption among young children. From findings to date, causal relationship cannot be drawn between TV advertising exposure and obesity, however significant associations have been found between fast food advertising and child body mass index. Limited regulations on marketing to children exist in the U.S. and various European countries have a range of statutory and self-regulatory rules in place.37While Canada has a well-established system of self regulation, Quebec is the only province prohibiting commercial advertising directed at children under the age of 13.42

Implications for Parents, Services and Policy

Despite the industrys positive actions to promote healthy lifestyles to children, companies continue to fail to protect children and adolescents from advertising unhealthy products as close to 69% of all advertising by companies participating in the coalition was for poor nutritional quality.40The food/beverage industrys self-regulation addresses the health needs of children ages 12 and younger leaving a large population of youth who have greater purchasing power and more autonomy to make food choices. Policies for nutrition and marketing standards should be implemented and enforced by federal, state and local governments in order to achieve uniform protection of the diets and health of children and youth.

According to American Academy of Pediatrics, children below the age of 2 should not watch TV and anyone older than 2 years should only watch 1 to 2 hours of quality programming per day.42Health care providers should be abreast of the latest research and policies regarding TV viewing and childrens dietary behaviours and obesity. At well-child visits, health care practitioner should discuss with families their TV habits and inform them about the negative impact of food advertising on childrens dietary behaviours.

Families play an important role in the lives of young children who depend on them for nourishment, role modeling, and setting rules for various activities such as TV viewing and advertising exposure. It is important that parents be aware of the amount of advertising exposure their children receive and its impact on their food preferences. Parents should also understand the importance of refraining from watching TV during meals, removing TV from childrens bedrooms, and generally limiting their childrens exposure to TV. One recommendation offered by IOM involves partnerships between government and the private sector to implement social marketing efforts targeted at educating and helping parents build skills to select and prepare healthful foods and beverages for their children.6Teaching parents about communicating on consumer matters and media literacy may also benefit their children to make more informed eating choices.

Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF. Generation M2. Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds. A Kaiser Family Foundation Study. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010. Available at:http: Accessed May 15, 2013.

Food for Thought. Television Food Advertising to Children in the United States. A Kaiser Family Foundation Report. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, March 2007. Available at: Accessed May 15, 2013.

Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. Trends in Television Food Advertising: Progress in Reducing Unhealthy Marketing to Young People? 2010. Available at: Accessed May 15, 2013.

Harris JL, Bargh JA. Television viewing and unhealthy diet: implications for children and media interventions.

Skinner JD, Carruth BR, Bounds W, Ziegler P, Reidy K. Do food-related experiences in the first 2 years of life predict dietary variety in school-aged children?

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth. Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity, 2006.

Robinson TN, Borzekowski DL, Matheson DM, Kraemer HC. Effects of fast food branding on young childrens taste preferences.

Dixon HG, Scully ML, Wakefield MA, White VM, Crawford DA. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on childrens food attitudes and preferences.

Story M, French S. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US.

Lapierre MA, Vaala SE, Linebarger DL. Influence of licensed spokescharacters and health cues on childrens ratings of cereal taste.

Lumeng J. Cartoon characters on food packages influence taste and snack preferences in young children.

Linn SE. Food marketing to children in the context of a marketing maelstrom.

Federal Trade Commission. Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents: A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self-Regulation, 2008. Available at: Accessed August, 25 2007.

Powell LM, Szczypka G, Chaloupka FJ. Exposure to food advertising on television among US children.

Halford JC, Boyland EJ, Hughes G, Oliveira LP, Dovey TM. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

Birch LL. Development of food preferences.

Lanfer A, Knof K, Barba G, et al. Taste preferences in association with dietary habits and weight status in European children: results from the IDEFICS study.

Chang H, Nayga Jr RM. Television Viewing, Fast-Food Consumption, and Childrens Obesity.

Chamberlain LJ, Wang Y, Robinson TN. Does childrens screen time predict requests for advertised products? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses.

Buijzen M, Schuurman J, Bomhof E. Associations between childrens television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

Andreyeva T, Kelly IR, Harris JL. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with childrens fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

Wiecha JL, Peterson KE, Ludwig DS, Kim J, Sobol A, Gortmaker SL. When children eat what they watch: impact of television viewing on dietary intake in youth.

Barr-Anderson DJ, Larson NI, Nelson MC, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

Dovey TM, Taylor L, Stow R, Boyland EJ, Halford JC. Responsiveness to healthy television (TV) food advertisements/commercials is only evident in children under the age of seven with low food neophobia.

Halford JC, Boyland EJ, Hughes GM, Stacey L, McKean S, Dovey TM. Beyond-brand effect of television food advertisements on food choice in children: the effects of weight status.

Grier SA, Mensinger J, Huang SH, Kumanyika SK, Stettler N. Fast-Food marketing and childrens fast-food consumption: Exploring parents influences in an ethnically diverse sample.

Outley CW, Taddese A. A content analysis of health and physical activity messages marketed to African American children during after-school television programming.

Powell LM, Szczypka G, Chaloupka FJ. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements among children and adolescents in the United States.

Henderson VR, Kelly B. Food advertising in the age of obesity: content analysis of food advertising on general market and African American television.

Harris JL, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Marketing foods to children and adolescents: licensed characters and other promotions on packaged foods in the supermarket.

Wang YC, Bleich SN, Gortmaker SL. Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004.

Vereecken CA, Todd J, Roberts C, Mulvihill C, Maes L. Television viewing behaviour and associations with food habits in different countries.

Chou SY, Rashad I, Grossman M. Fast-food restaurants advertising on television and its influence on childhood obesity.

Goris JM, Petersen S, Stamatakis E, Veerman JL. Television food advertising and the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity: a multicountry comparison.

Veerman JL, Van Beeck EF, Barendregt JJ, Mackenbach JP. By how much would limiting TV food advertising reduce childhood obesity?

Buijzen M. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and childrens consumption behaviour.

Hawkes C. Marketing Food to Children: Changes in the Global Regulatory Environment 2004-2006. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007. Available at Accessed May 15, 2013.

Kraak VI, Story M, Wartella EA, Ginter J. Industry progress to market a healthful diet to american children and adolescents.

Harris JL, Vishnudas S. Trends in Television Food Advertising to Young People: 2010 Update. Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, New Haven, CT, 2011. Available at Accessed May 15, 2013.

Kunkel D, McKinley C, Wright P. The Impact of Industry Self-Regulation on the Nutritional Quality of Foods Advertised on Television to Children. Ch1ldren Now. University of Arizona, 2009. Available at Accessed May 15, 2013.

Ustjanauskas AE, Eckman B, Harris JL, Goren A, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Focus Groups with Parents: What do they think about food marketing to their kids? Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. New Haven, CT, May 2010. Available at Accessed May 15, 2013.

American Academy of Pediatrics. The benefits of limiting TV. Available at Accessed May 15, 2013.

Arcan C, Bruening M, Story M. Television (TV) and TV Advertisement Influences on Childrens Eating Behaviour. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Faith MS, topic ed.Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development[online]. Published September 2013. Accessed July 16, 2018.

Myles S. Faith, PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

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Children Adolescents and Advertising

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December 2006, VOLUME 118 / ISSUE 6

From the American Academy of Pediatrics

FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS

Children, Adolescents, and Advertising

This article has corrections. Please see:

Advertising is a pervasive influence on children and adolescents. Young people view more than 40 000 ads per year on television alone and increasingly are being exposed to advertising on the Internet, in magazines, and in schools. This exposure may contribute significantly to childhood and adolescent obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarette and alcohol use. Media education has been shown to be effective in mitigating some of the negative effects of advertising on children and adolescents.

Several European countries forbid or severely curtail advertising to children; in the United States, on the other hand, selling to children is simply business as usual.1The average young person views more than 3000 ads per day on television (TV), on the Internet, on billboards, and in magazines.2Increasingly, advertisers are targeting younger and younger children in an effort to establish brand-name preference at as early an age as possible.3This targeting occurs because advertising is a $250 billion/year industry with 900 000 brands to sell,2and children and adolescents are attractive consumers: teenagers spend $155 billion/year, children younger than 12 years spend another $25 billion, and both groups influence perhaps another $200 billion of their parents spending per year.45Increasingly, advertisers are seeking to find new and creative ways of targeting young consumers via the Internet, in schools, and even in bathroom stalls.1

Research has shown that young childrenyounger than 8 yearsare cognitively and psychologically defenseless against advertising.69They do not understand the notion of intent to sell and frequently accept advertising claims at face value.10In fact, in the late 1970s, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) held hearings, reviewed the existing research, and came to the conclusion that it was unfair and deceptive to advertise to children younger than 6 years.11What kept the FTC from banning such ads was that it was thought to be impractical to implement such a ban.11However, some Western countries have done exactly that: Sweden and Norway forbid all advertising directed at children younger than 12 years, Greece bans toy advertising until after 10pm, and Denmark and Belgium severely restrict advertising aimed at children.12

Children and adolescents view 400 00 ads per year on TV alone.13This occurs despite the fact that the Childrens Television Act of 1990 (Pub L No. 101437) limits advertising on childrens programming to 10.5 minutes/hour on weekends and 12 minutes/hour on weekdays. However, much of childrens viewing occurs during prime time, which features nearly 16 minutes/hour of advertising.14A 30-second ad during the Super Bowl now costs $2.3 million but reaches 80 million people.15

A 2000 FTC investigation found that violent movies, music, and video games have been intentionally marketed to children and adolescents.16Although movie theaters have agreed not to show trailers for R-rated movies before G-rated movies in response to the release of the FTC report, children continue to see advertising for violent media in other venues. For instance, M-rated video games, which according to the gaming industrys own rating system are not recommended for children younger than 17 years, are frequently advertised in movie theaters, video game magazines, and publications with high youth readership.17Also, movies targeted at children often prominently feature brand-name products and fast food restaurants.18In 19971998, 8 alcohol companies placed products in 233 motion pictures and in 1 episode or more of 181 TV series.18

According to the Consumers Union,19more than 160 magazines are now targeted at children. Young people see 45% more beer ads and 27% more ads for hard liquor in teen magazines than adults do in their magazines.20Despite the Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry in 1998, tobacco advertising expenditures in 38 youth-oriented magazines amounted to $217 million in 2000.21

An increasing number of Web sites try to entice children and teenagers to make direct sales. Teenagers account for more than $1 billion in e-commerce dollars,22and the industry spent $21.6 million on Internet banner ads alone in 2002.23More than 100 commercial Web sites promote alcohol products.23The content of these sites varies widely, from little more than basic brand information to chat rooms, virtual bars, drink recipes, games, contests, and merchandise catalogues. Many of these sites use slick promotional techniques to target young people.2324In 1998, the Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act (Pub L No. 105277) was passed, which mandates that commercial Web sites cannot knowingly collect information from children younger than 13 years. These sites are required to provide notice on the site to parents about their collection, use, and disclosure of childrens personal information and must obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting, using, or disclosing this information.25

Advertisers have traditionally used techniques to which children and adolescents are more susceptible, such as product placements in movies and TV shows,26tie-ins between movies and fast food restaurants,18tie-ins between TV shows and toy action figures or other products,7kids clubs that are linked to popular shows, and celebrity endorsements.27Cellular phones are currently being marketed to 6- to 12-year-olds, with the potential for directing specific advertisers to children and preteens. Coca-Cola reportedly paid Warner Bros. Studios $150 million for the global marketing rights to the movie Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone,28and nearly 20% of fast food restaurant ads now mention a toy premium in their ads.29Certain tie-in products may be inappropriate for children (eg, action figures from the World Wrestling Federation or an action doll that mutters profanities from an R-ratedAustin Powersmovie).

Childrens advertising protections will need to be updated for digital TV, which will be in place before 2010. In the near future, children watching a TV program will be able to click an on-screen link and go to a Web site during the program.30Interactive games and promotions on digital TV will have the ability to lure children away from regular programming, encouraging them to spend a long time in an environment that lacks clear separation between content and advertising. Interactive technology may also allow advertisers to collect vast amounts of information about childrens viewing habits and preferences and target them on the basis of that information.31

Tobacco manufacturers spend $30 million/day ($11.2 billion/year) on advertising and promotion.32Exposure to tobacco advertising may be a bigger risk factor than having family members and peers who smoke33and can even undermine the effect of strong parenting practices.34Two unique and large longitudinal studies have found that approximately one third of all adolescent smoking can be attributed to tobacco advertising and promotions.3536In addition, more than 20 studies have found that children exposed to cigarette ads or promotions are more likely to become smokers themselves.3738Recent evidence has emerged that tobacco companies have specifically targeted teenagers as young as 13 years of age.39

Alcohol manufacturers spend $5.7 billion/year on advertising and promotion.40Young people typically view 2000 beer and wine commercials annually,41with most of the ads concentrated in sports programming. During prime time, only 1 alcohol ad appears every 4 hours; yet, in sports programming, the frequency increases to 2.4 ads per hour.4243Research has found that adolescent drinkers are more likely to have been exposed to alcohol advertising.4450Given that children begin making decisions about alcohol at an early ageprobably during grade school50exposure to beer commercials represents a significant risk factor.4650Minority children may be at particular risk.51

Just Say No as a message to teenagers about drugs seems doomed to failure given that $11 billion/year is spent on cigarette advertising, $5.7 billion/year is spent on alcohol advertising, and nearly $4 billion/year is spent on prescription drug advertising.52Drug companies now spend more than twice as much on marketing as they do on research and development. The top 10 drug companies made a total profit of $35.9 billion in 2002more than the other 490 companies in the Fortune 500 combined.53Is such advertising effective? A recent survey of physicians found that 92% of patients had requested an advertised drug.5455In addition, children and teenagers may get the message that there is a drug available to cure all ills and heal all pain, a drug for every occasion (including sexual intercourse).41

Advertisers spend more than $2.5 billion/year to promote restaurants and another $2 billion to promote food products.56On TV, of the estimated 40 000 ads per year that young people see, half are for food, especially sugared cereals and high-calorie snacks.2957Healthy foods are advertised less than 3% of the time; children rarely see a food advertisement for broccoli.58Increasingly, fast food conglomerates are using toy tie-ins with major childrens motion pictures to try to attract young people.59Nearly 20% of fast food ads now mention a toy premium in their commercials.29Several studies document that young children request more junk food (defined as foods with high-caloric density but very low nutrient density) after viewing commercials.6063In 1 study, the amount of TV viewed per week correlated with requests for specific foods and with caloric intake.61At the same time, advertising healthy foods has been shown to increase wholesome eating in children as young as 3 to 6 years of age.64

Sex is used in commercials to sell everything from beer to shampoo to cars.65New research is showing that teenagers exposure to sexual content in the media may be responsible for earlier onset of sexual intercourse or other sexual activities.6667What is increasingly apparent is the discrepancy between the abundance of advertising of products for erectile dysfunction (ED) (between January and October, 2004, drug companies spent $343 million advertising Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis)68and the lack of advertising for birth control products or emergency contraceptives on the major TV networks. This is despite the fact that 2 national polls have found that a majority of Americans favor the advertising of birth control on TV.6970Ads for ED drugs give children and teens inappropriate messages about sex and sexuality at a time when they are not being taught well in school sex education programs.7172Research has definitively found that giving teenagers increased access to birth control through advertising does not make them sexually active at a younger age.7380

American advertising also frequently uses female models who are anorectic in appearance and, thus, may contribute to the development of a distorted body self-image and abnormal eating behaviors in young girls.798182

Advertisers have slowly but steadily infiltrated school systems around the country. The 3 Rs have now become the 4 Rs, with the fourth R being retail.8384Ads are now appearing on school buses, in gymnasiums, on book covers, and even in bathroom stalls.85More than 200 school districts nationwide have signed exclusive contracts with soft drink companies.86These agreements specify the number and placement of soda-vending machines, which is ironic given that schools risk losing federal subsidies for their free breakfast and lunch programs if they serve soda in their cafeterias. In addition, there are more than 4500 Pizza Hut chains and 3000 Taco Bell chains in school cafeterias around the country.87

There is some good news, however. In May, 2006, the nations largest beverage distributors agreed to halt nearly all sales of sodas to public schools and sell only water, unsweetened juice, and low-fat milk in elementary and middle schools. Diet sodas would be sold only in high schools.88

School advertising also appears under the guise of educational TV: Channel One. Currently available in 12 000 schools, Channel One consists of 10 minutes of current-events programming and 2 minutes of commercials. Advertisers pay $200 000 for advertising time and the opportunity to target 40% of the nations teenagers for 30 seconds.89According to a recent government report, Channel One now plays in 25% of the nations middle and high schools81and generates profits estimated at $100 million annually.89

Clearly, advertising represents big business in the United States and can have a significant effect on young people. Unlike free speech, commercial speech does not enjoy the same protections under the First Amendment of the Constitution.90Advertisements can be restricted or even banned if there is a significant public health risk. Cigarette advertising and alcohol advertising would seem to fall squarely into this category, and ads for junk food could easily be restricted.91

One solution that is noncontroversial and would be easy to implement is to educate children and teenagers about the effects of advertisingmedia literacy. Curricula have been developed that teach young people to become critical viewers of media in all of its forms, including advertising.9294Media education seems to be protective in mitigating harmful effects of media, including the effects of cigarette, alcohol, and food advertising.9396

Pediatricians should become familiar with the methods that advertisers use to target children and adolescents.

Pediatricians should only subscribe to magazines that are free of tobacco and alcohol advertisements for their waiting rooms (eg,Good Housekeepinghas refused to carry tobacco ads since 1952).

Pediatricians should counsel their patients to limit total noneducational screen time to no more than 2 hours/day,97which will limit exposure to advertising of all kinds.

Pediatricians should write letters to advertisers if they see inappropriate ads and should encourage parents to do the same (letters can be addressed to the Childrens Advertising Review Unit, Council of Better Business Bureaus, 845 Third Ave, New York, NY 10022).

Pediatricians should work with community groups and local school boards to implement media education programs that teach about the effects of advertising on children and adolescents. The federal government should help underwrite the cost of establishing and disseminating such programs.

Pediatricians should work with parents, schools, community groups, and others to ban or severely curtail school-based advertising in all forms.

Pediatricians should work with parent and public health groups to:

ask Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to limit commercial advertising on childrens programming to no more than 5 to 6 minutes/hour, which would decrease the current amount by 50%;

ask Congress to implement a ban on cigarette and tobacco advertising in all media, including banners and logos in sports arenas;

ask Congress to restrict alcohol advertising to what is known as tombstone advertising, in which only the product is shown, not cartoon characters or attractive women;

ask Congress to implement a ban on junk-food advertising during programming that is viewed predominantly by young children;

ask Congress to increase funding for public TVthe sole source of high-quality, educational, noncommercial programming for children;

advocate for confining ads for ED drugs to after 10pm. The American Academy of Pediatrics has always strongly endorsed the advertising of birth control on TV. There is now considerable evidence that birth control advertising could lower teen pregnancy rates even further while having no impact on rates of teen sexual activity.79However, when birth control advertising is so rare on prime time TV, it makes no sense to allow ED drug advertising that may confuse children and teens about human sexuality and make sexual activity seem like a recreational sport.

ask Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to prohibit interactive advertising to children in digital TV; and

ask Congress to convene a national task force on advertising under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the FTC. This task force would discuss the nature of the current problem and the current research and would propose solutions toward limiting childrens exposure to unhealthy advertising, including the funding of future research. The task force would include representatives from the toy industry, the fast food industry, and the advertising community, as well as pediatricians, child psychiatrists and psychologists, and public health advocates.

Pediatricians, together with the American Academy of Pediatrics Media Resource Team, should work with the entertainment industry to ensure that the advertising of violent media to children does not occur, that product placements in movies and TV do not occur, that the dissemination and enforcement of the individual industries own rating systems is facilitated, and that advertising for contraceptives is more widely disseminated on network TV.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.

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Goodman E. Ads pollute most everything in sight.

Kids as Customers: A Handbook of Marketing to Children

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Branded: The Buying and Selling of Teenagers

Span P. Marketers hang on affluent teen-agers every wish.

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Children, Adolescents, and the Media

The Impact of Television Advertising on Children

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Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies

In the Matter of Childrens Advertising: FTC Final Staff Report and Recommendation

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Valkenburg PM. Media and youth consumerism.

Television: Whats On, Whos Watching, and What it Means

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Robins JM. Increasingly, TVs a mess of messages.

Gentile G. Cinemas want movie fans to sit still for ads (Associated Press).

Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: Report of the FTC.

Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; September 2000

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine.

Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility

. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003. Available at: Accessed October 31, 2005

Consumers Union. Selling Americas kids: commercial pressures on kids of the 90s. Available at: Accessed October 31, 2005

Rumbelow H. Study: alcohol ads often reach teens.

King C III, Siegel M. The Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry and cigarette advertising in magazines.

Montgomery K. Digital kids: the new on-line childrens consumer culture. In: Singer DG, Singer JL, eds.

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Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth.

Clicking With Kids: Alcohol Marketing and Youth on the Internet

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Donnerstein E. The Internet. In: Strasburger VC, Wilson BJ, eds.

Children, Adolescents, and the Media

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Childrens online privacy protection rule: final rule. 64

59888 (1999) (codified at 16 CFR 312)

Sargent JD, Tickle JJ, Beach ML, Dalton MA, Ahrens MB, Heatherton TF. Brand appearances in contemporary cinema films and contribution to global marketing of cigarettes.

Robertson T, Rossiter J, Gleason T. Childrens receptivity to proprietary medicine advertising.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Soft drinks replacing healthier alternatives in American diet.

Reece BB, Rifon NJ, Rodriguez K. Selling food to children: is fun part of a balanced breakfast? In: Macklin MC, Carlson L, eds.

Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies

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Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children. Conference Report.

Oakland, CA: Children Now; 2004. Available at: Accessed October 16, 2006

Written comments of the Childrens Media Policy Coalition submitted to the Federal Communications Commission, MM docket 00167 in the matter of Childrens Television Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters

. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; 2003

Evans N, Farkas A, Gilpin E, Berry C, Pierce JP. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

Pierce JP, Distefan JM, Jackson C, White MM, Gilpin EA. Does tobacco marketing undermine the influence of recommended parenting in discouraging adolescents from smoking?

Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, Farkas AJ, Berry CC. Industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking [published correction appears in

Biener L, Siegel M. Tobacco marketing and adolescent smoking: more support for a causal inference.

Pierce JP, Lee L, Gilpin EA. Smoking initiation by adolescent girls, 1944 through 1988: an association with targeted advertising.

Sargent JD, Dalton M, Beach M. Exposure to cigarette promotions and smoking uptake in adolescents: evidence of a dose-response relation.

Weinstein H. Papers: RJR went for teens.

Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth.

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The Effects of the Mass Media on Use and Abuse of Alcohol.

Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 1995

Madden PA, Grube JW. The frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in televised sports, 1990 through 1992.

Aitken PP, Eadie DR, Leathar DS, McNeill RE, Scott AC. Television advertisements for alcoholic drinks do reinforce under-age drinking.

Wyllie A, Zhang JF, Casswell S. Positive responses to televised beer advertisements associated with drinking and problems reported by 18 to 29-year-olds.

Austin EW, Knaus C. Predicting future risky behavior among those too young to drink as the result of advertising desirability. Paper presented at: meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication; Baltimore, MD; August 58, 1998

Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption: A Review of Recent ResearchNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 10th Special Report to Congress on Alcohol and Health.

Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 1999

Robinson TN, Chen HL, Killen JD. Television and music video exposure and risk of adolescent alcohol use.

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The Truth About the Drug Companies, How They Deceive Us and What to Do About It

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The Early Window: Effects of Television on Children and Youth

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Deadly Persuasion: Why Women and Girls Must Fight the Addictive Power of Advertising

Collins RL, Elliott MN, Berry SH, et al. Watching sex on television predicts adolescent initiation of sexual behavior.

Brown JD, LEngle KL, Pardun CJ, Guo G, Kenneavy K, Jackson C. Sexy media matter: exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents sexual behavior.

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Australian Stereotypes

English teachers looking at critical literacy in Queensland can require their students to explore stereotyping in Australian media. What better place to start than television advertisements? There are, at last count, 480 Australian advertisements reviewed on this site, available through theAustralia filter. Each of the ads listed here is written up, with a YouTube link, and in many cases has details about where to download the video. Click on the links provided (dotted red line indicates a hyperlink).

The best place to begin is with the VB Regulars commercial, written uphere.

Click on the image below to play the video in YouTube

Carlton MID Bloke BotsHahn Premium Light GondolaCarlton Midstrength ShedsCarlton Draught Big AdCastlemaine XXXXCarlton Draught CanoeTooheys Tall Men.

Ford Courier BarbecueHonda CRV Dress For ItFord Ranger Legendary Tough.

Lipton Ice Tea BeachHahn Premium Light Gondola/Lynx JetNatures OrganicDrumstick Summer Ritual at the poolHahn Super Dry Love HeartBundaberg Rum Bundy BearLynx Jet AwardAntz Pantz Sic Em Rex.

Virgin Blue MuffsAAPT Tell It Like It IsMcDonalds Pasta See ThingsSpecial K Remember YouCanon Selphy Domino EffectABC Ironing is Wonderful

Coke Zero Bus SurferHahn Spa BombNandos Ruffle FeathersReal AussieRobbo Gets Start MortgageSteve Irwin QuarantineFarmers Union Iced Coffee History.

Toyota AFL MomentsNRMA BroncosRugby ButterfliesNike Keep the Ball AliveI Am AustralianVB Boony and BeefyPowerade SocceroosQantas Football Taking Off

Heinz Absolute CockroachCarlton Draught CanoeAustralia Post Days of the WeekYellow Pages Not Happy Jan

MTV Budgie SmugglersUN BadmouthFinnish Sauce.

Radiohead FanAssistance Dogs PhoneSpecial Olympics Office

Absolut Cut The CrapLipton Ice Beach, Mechanic

Suncorp Aint No SunshineWhere Else But Queensland

Where the Bloody Hell Are You?andSpoof

Red Meat EvolutionSam Neill on InstinctSam Kekovich Vote Lamb.

If youd like some help with this use thecontact page.

A global effort designed to influence, affect and involve creative communities in the development of a world standard for inspiration, particularly in the fields of advertising, design and film.More

London Mayor Sadiq Khan plans TfL junk food advert b

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Adverts for unhealthy food and drink could be banned on the Tube, Overground, buses and bus shelters

Junk food advertising could be banned across the entire Transport for London (TfL) network, City Hall has announced.

The Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, says he wants to tackle the ticking time bomb of child obesity in the capital.

If the proposal is approved, adverts for unhealthy food and drink will be banned on the London Underground, Overground, buses and bus shelters.

The scheme is backed by child health experts but the Advertising Association said it would have little impact.

The junk food advertising ban forms part of Mr KhansLondon Food Strategy, which has been published for consultation.

TfLs director of TfLs transport strategy Lilli Matson said it had a large advertising estate with a diverse audience, and is supporting the mayors attempts to make London healthier.

Mr Khan wants to reduce the influence and pressure that can be put on children and families to make unhealthy choices.

He said: I am determined to do all I can to tackle this issue with the powers I have and help Londoners make healthy food choices for themselves and their families.

That is why I am proposing to ban adverts for harmful junk food from our entire Tube and bus network.

Mr Khan intends to ban adverts for food and drinks high in fat, salt or sugar.

How Amsterdam is reducing child obesity

Stark increase in overweight youngsters

If the plan goes ahead junk food adverts will be banned on the Underground, Overground and bus network

A spokesman for the mayors office said if the ban comes in everyone will be affected, whether its the biggest fast food chain or the most niche, and their products will be assessed against thenutrient profiling modeldeveloped by the Food Standards Agency.

Companies could, he added, choose to swap their adverts for burgers or fizzy drinks for healthier products within their range, such as salads or bottled water.

The burgers may be banned, the fizzy drinks may fizzle out, but have we seen the last of adverts from companies who make their money selling such things to Londoners? The truth is, probably not.

It seems the mayor is trying to have his (low-calorie) cake and eat it.

Perhaps aware that high sugar, fat and salt ads bring in around 13m for TfL he says his new ban will not apply to companies – just to their less healthy products.

Advertise with us, hell say, as long as youre pushing your healthier wares.

That could cut the expected losses to TfL, but how does the policy fit into a wider business plan that sees shops at stations selling unhealthy snacks? Or kiosks on the Tube selling chocolates and crisps?

We can all indulge occasionally, the mayor told me.

Advertisers will now have to decide how occasionally they wish to indulge when it comes to the big sell on Londons Tube and buses.

Chef and health campaigner Jamie Oliver – who has said London now has the most overweight and obese children of any major global city – described the proposal as bold.

City Hall says the capital has one of the highest child overweight and obesity rates in Europe, with almost 40% of children aged 10 and 11 either overweight or obese.

It has identified stark differences between boroughs, with children from poorer areas disproportionately affected.

Young people in Barking and Dagenham are almost twice as likely to be overweight as children from Richmond-upon-Thames, it says.

We need to ensure those families have access to nutritional and healthy food but arent disproportionately exposed to adverts for unhealthy foods, Mr Khan told BBC Radio Londons Vanessa Feltz, adding that there are some parts of London where you simply havent got access to fresh fruit and veg.

Russell Viner, president of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, said advertising was one of the leading contributors for the growth of child obesity, adding: It is therefore vital, especially in cities like London where deprivation is high, that it is tackled.

An Advertising Association spokesperson said the UK already bans advertising of high fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) food or drink products in all media where under 16s make up more than 25% of the audience.

He added that for outdoor advertising, such as posters on the Underground, there is a recommendation that no sites can carry HFSS advertising within 100m of any school.

International experience and independent research has shown an advertising ban would have little impact on the wider societal issues that drive obesity, he said.

Todays announcement has been welcomed by healthy food charity Sustain and the Obesity Health Alliance Lead, which said it hoped the Government would follow suit by banning junk food ads on TV after 21:00 as part of chapter 2 ofits obesity plan.

The Department of Health said it has not ruled out taking further action following itstax on sugary drinks which came into force last month.

Soft drink sugar tax starts, but will it work?

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Criticism of advertising

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Advertisingis a form ofcommunicationintended topersuadean audience to purchase products, ideals or services. While advertising can be seen as necessary foreconomic growth, it is not withoutsocial costsUnsolicited commercial emailand other forms ofspamhave become so prevalent that they are a major nuisance to internet users, as well as being a financial burden oninternet service providers.1Advertising increasingly invades public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation.2Advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful. As a result of these criticisms, the advertising industry has seen low approval rates in surveys and negative cultural portrayals3.

Criticism of advertisingis closely linked withcriticism of mediaand often interchangeable. Critics can refer to advertisings

audio-visual aspects (cluttering ofpublic spacesand airwaves)

environmental aspects (pollution, oversize packaging, increasing consumption)

political aspects (media dependencyfree speechcensorship)

ethical/moral/social aspects (sub-conscious influencing, invasion of privacy, increasing consumption and waste, target groups, certain products, honesty)

Sexism, discrimination and stereotyping

Opposition and campaigns against advertising

As advertising has become prevalent in modern society, it is increasingly being criticized. Advertising occupies public space and more and more invades the private sphere of people. According to Georg Franck, It is becoming harder to escape from advertising and the media. Public space is increasingly turning into a gigantic billboard for products of all kind. The aesthetical and political consequences cannot yet be foreseen.4Hanno Rauterberg in the German newspaperDie Zeitcalls advertising a new kind of dictatorship that cannot be escaped.5

Ad creepsays, There are ads in schools, airport lounges, doctors offices, movie theaters, hospitals, gas stations, elevators, convenience stores, on the Internet, on fruit, on ATMs, on garbage cans and countless other places. There are ads on beach sand and restroom walls.6One of the ironies of advertising in our times is that ascommercialismincreases, it makes it that much more difficult for any particular advertiser to succeed, hence pushing the advertiser to even greater efforts.7Within a decade advertising in radios climbed to nearly 18 or 19 minutes per hour, on prime-time television the standard until 1982 was no more than 9.5 minutes of advertising per hour, today it is between 14 and 17 minutes. With the introduction of the shorter 15-second-spot the total amount of ads increased even more. Ads are not only placed in breaks but also into sports telecasts during the game itself. They flood the Internet, a growing market.

Other growing markets areproduct placementsin entertainment programming and movies where it has become standard practice and virtual advertising where products get placed retroactively into rerun shows. Product billboards are virtually inserted into Major League Baseball broadcasts and in the same manner, virtual street banners or logos are projected on an entry canopy or sidewalks, for example during the arrival of celebrities at the 2001Grammy Awards. Advertising precedes the showing of films at cinemas including lavish film shorts produced by companies such as Microsoft or DaimlerChrysler. The largest advertising agencies have begun working to co-produce programming in conjunction with the largest media firms,8creating Infomercials resembling entertainment programming.

Opponents equate the growing amount of advertising with atidal waveand restrictions with damming the flood.Kalle Lasn, one of the most outspoken critics of advertising, considers advertising the most prevalent and toxic of the mental pollutants. From the moment your radio alarm sounds in the morning to the wee hours of late-night TV microjolts of commercial pollution flood into your brain at the rate of around 3,000 marketing messages per day. Every day an estimated 12 billion display ads, 3 million radio commercials and more than 200,000 television commercials are dumped into North Americas collective unconscious.9In the course of their life, the average American watches three years of advertising on television.10

Video games incorporate products into their content. Special commercial patient channels in hospitals and public figures sporting temporary tattoos. A method unrecognisable as advertising is so-called guerrilla marketing which is spreading buzz about a new product in target audiences. Cash-strapped U.S. cities offer police cars for advertising.11Companies buy the names ofsports stadiumsfor advertising. TheHamburgsoccer Volkspark stadium first became the AOL Arena and then theHSH Nordbank Arena. TheStuttgartNeckarstadion became theMercedes-Benz Arena, the Dortmund Westfalenstadion is theSignal Iduna Park. The former SkyDome in Toronto was renamedRogers Centre.

Whole subway stations in Berlin are redesigned into product halls and exclusively leased to a company. Dsseldorf has multi-sensorial adventure transit stops equipped with loudspeakers and systems that spread the smell of a detergent. Swatch used beamers to project messages on the Berlin TV-tower and Victory column, which was fined because it was done without a permit. The illegality was part of the scheme and added promotion.5Christopher Laschstates that advertising leads to an overall increase inconsumptionin society; Advertising serves not so much to advertise products as to promoteconsumption as a way of life.12

In the US, advertising is equated with constitutionally guaranteed freedom of opinion and speech.13

Currently or in the near future, any number of cases are and will be working their way through the court system that would seek to prohibit any government regulation of… commercial speech (e.g. advertising or food labelling) on the grounds that such regulation would violate citizens and corporations First Amendment rights to free speech or free press.

An example for this debate is advertising for tobacco or alcohol but also advertising by mail or fliers (clogged mail boxes), advertising on the phone, in the Internet and advertising for children. Various legal restrictions concerning spamming, advertising on mobile phones, when addressing children, tobacco, alcohol have been introduced by the US, the EU and other countries.

McChesney argues, that the government deserves constant vigilance when it comes to such regulations, but that it is certainly not the only antidemocratic force in our society. Corporations and the wealthy enjoy a power every bit as immense as that enjoyed by the lords and royalty of feudal times and markets are not value-free or neutral; they not only tend to work to the advantage of those with the most money, but they also by their very nature emphasize profit over all else. Hence, today the debate is over whether advertising or food labelling, or campaign contributions are speech… if the rights to be protected by the First Amendment can only be effectively employed by a fraction of the citizenry, and their exercise of these rights gives them undue political power and undermines the ability of the balance of the citizenry to exercise the same rights and/or constitutional rights, then it is not necessarily legitimately protected by the First Amendment. Those with the capacity to engage in free press are in a position to determine who can speak to the great mass of citizens and who cannot.15

Georg Franck at Vienna University of Technology, says that advertising is part of what he calls mental capitalism,1617taking up a term (mental) which has been used by groups concerned with the mental environment, such asAdbusters. Franck blends the Economy of Attention with Christopher Laschsculture of narcissisminto the mental capitalism:18In his essay Advertising at the Edge of the Apocalypse,Sut Jhallywrites: 20th century advertising is the most powerful and sustained system of propaganda inhuman historyand its cumulative cultural effects, unless quickly checked, will be responsible for destroying the world as we know it.19

Advertising has developed into a multi billion-dollar business. In 2014, 537 billion US dollars20were spent worldwide for advertising. In 2013, TV accounted for 40.1% of ad spending, compared to a combined 18.1% for internet, 16.9% for newspapers, 7.9% for magazines, 7% for outdoor, 6.9% for radio, 2.7% for mobile and 0.5% for cinema as a share of ad spending by medium. Advertising is considered to raise consumption.

Attention and attentiveness have become a new commodity for which a market developed. The amount of attention that is absorbed by the media and redistributed in the competition for quotas and reach is not identical with the amount of attention, that is available in society. The total amount circulating in society is made up of the attention exchanged among the people themselves and the attention given to media information. Only the latter is homogenised by quantitative measuring and only the latter takes on the character of an anonymous currency.1617According to Franck, any surface of presentation that can guarantee a certain degree of attentiveness works as magnet for attention, for example, media which are actually meant for information and entertainment, culture and the arts, public space etc. It is this attraction which is sold to the advertising business. In Germany, the advertising industry contributes 1.5% of the gross national income. The German Advertising Association stated that in 2007, 30.78 billion Euros were spent on advertising in Germany,2126% in newspapers, 21% on television, 15% by mail and 15% in magazines. In 2002 there were 360,000 people employed in the advertising business. The Internet revenues for advertising doubled to almost 1 billion Euros from 2006 to 2007, giving it the highest growth rates.

Few consumers are aware of the fact that they are the ones paying for every cent spent for public relations, advertisements, rebates, packaging etc., since they ordinarily get included in the price calculation.

The most important element of advertising is not information but suggestion more or less making use of associations,emotionsand drives in the subconscious, such assex driveherd instinctdesiressuch as happiness, health, fitness, appearance,self-esteemreputation, belonging,social status, identity, adventure, distraction, reward,fearssuch as illness, weaknesses, loneliness, need, uncertainty, security or ofprejudices, learned opinions and comforts. Allhuman needs, relationships, andfears the deepest recesses of thehuman psyche become mere means for the expansion of thecommodityuniverse under the force of modern marketing. With the rise to prominence of modern marketing,commercialism the translation of human relations into commodity relations although a phenomenon intrinsic to capitalism, has expanded exponentially.22Cause-related marketing in which advertisers link their product to some worthy social cause has boomed over the past decade.

Advertising uses the model role ofcelebritiesor popular figures and makes deliberate use of humor as well as of associations with color, tunes, certain names and terms. These are factors of how one perceives themself and ones self-worth. In his description of mental capitalism Franck says, the promise of consumption making someone irresistible is the ideal way of objects and symbols into a persons subjective experience. Evidently, in a society in which revenue of attention moves to the fore, consumption is drawn by ones self-esteem. As a result, consumption becomes work on a persons attraction. From the subjective point of view, this work opens fields of unexpected dimensions for advertising. Advertising takes on the role of a life councillor in matters of attraction. The cult around ones own attraction is what Christopher Lasch described as Culture of Narcissism.1718

For advertising critics another serious problem is that, the long standing notion of separation between advertising and editorial/creative sides of media is rapidly crumbling and advertising is increasingly hard to tell apart from news, information or entertainment. The boundaries between advertising and programming are becoming blurred. According to the media firms all this commercial involvement has no influence over actual media content, but as McChesney puts it, this claim fails to pass even the most basic giggle test, it is so preposterous.23

Advertising draws heavily on psychological theories about how to create subjects, enabling advertising and marketing to take on a more clearly psychological tinge.24Increasingly, the emphasis in advertising has switched from providing factual information to the symbolic connotations of commodities, since the crucial cultural premise of advertising is that the material object being sold is never in itself enough. Even those commodities providing for the most mundane necessities of daily life must be imbued with symbolic qualities and culturally endowed meanings via the magic system of advertising.25In this way and by altering the context in which advertisements appear, things can be made to mean just about anything and the same things can be endowed with different intended meanings for different individuals and groups of people, thereby offering mass produced visions of individualism.2627

Before advertising is done,market researchinstitutions need to know and describe the target group to exactly plan and implement the advertising campaign and to achieve the best possible results. A whole array of sciences directly deal with advertising and marketing or are used to improve its effects. Focus groups, psychologists and cultural anthropologists are de rigueur in marketing research.28Vast amounts of data on persons and their shopping habits are collected, accumulated, aggregated and analysed with the aid of credit cards, bonus cards, raffles and internet surveying. With increasing accuracy this supplies a picture of behaviour, wishes and weaknesses of certain sections of a population with which advertisement can be employed more selectively and effectively.

The efficiency of advertising is improved throughadvertising research. Universities, of course supported by business and in co-operation with other disciplines (s. above), mainlyPsychiatryAnthropologyNeurologyand behavioural sciences, are constantly in search for ever more refined, sophisticated, subtle and crafty methods to make advertising more effective.Neuromarketingis a controversial new field of marketing which uses medical technologies such as functionalMagnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI)not to heal, but to sell products. Advertising and marketing firms have long used the insights and research methods of psychology in order to sell products, of course. But today these practices are reaching epidemic levels, and with a complicity on the part of the psychological profession that exceeds that of the past. The result is an enormous advertising and marketing onslaught that comprises, arguably, the largest single psychological project ever undertaken. Yet, this great undertaking remains largely ignored by the American Psychological Association.29Robert McChesney calls it the greatest concerted attempt atpsychological manipulationin all of human history.30

Almost allmass mediaareadvertising mediaand many of them are exclusively advertising media and, with the exception ofpublic service broadcasting, are in the private sector. Their income is predominantly generated through advertising; in the case of newspapers and magazines from 50 to 80%. Public service broadcasting in some countries can also heavily depend on advertising as a source of income (up to 40%).31In the view of critics no media that spreads advertisements can be independent and the higher the proportion of advertising, the higher the dependency. This dependency has distinct implications for the nature of media content. In the business press, the media are often referred to in exactly the way they present themselves in their candid moments: as a branch of the advertising industry.32

In addition, the private media are increasingly subject to mergers and concentration with property situations often becoming entangled and opaque. This development, which Henry A. Giroux calls an ongoing threat to democratic culture,33by itself should suffice to sound all alarms in a democracy. Five or six advertising agencies dominate this 400 billion U.S. dollar global industry.

Journalists have long faced pressure to shape stories to suit advertisers and owners . the vast majority of TV station executives found their news departments cooperative in shaping the news to assist in non-traditional revenue development.34Negative and undesired reporting can be prevented or influenced when advertisers threaten to cancel orders or simply when there is a danger of such a cancellation. Media dependency and such a threat become very real when there is only one dominant or very few large advertisers. The influence of advertisers is not only in regard to news or information on their own products or services but expands to articles or shows not directly linked to them. In order to secure their advertising revenues the media have to create the best possible advertising environment. Another problem considered censorship by critics is the refusal of media to accept advertisements that are not in their interest. A striking example of this is the refusal of TV stations to broadcast ads byAdbusters. Groups try to place advertisements and are refused by networks.35

It is principally the viewing rates which decide upon the programme in the private radio and television business. Their business is to absorb as much attention as possible. The viewing rate measures the attention the media trades for the information offered. The service of this attraction is sold to the advertising business17and the viewing rates determine the price that can be demanded for advertising.

Advertising companies determining the contents of shows has been part of daily life in the USA since 1933. Procter & Gamble (P&G) . offered a radio station a history-making trade (today known as bartering): the company would produce an own show for free and save the radio station the high expenses for producing contents. Therefore, the company would want its commercials spread and, of course, its products placed in the show. Thus, the series Ma Perkins was created, which P&G skilfully used to promote Oxydol, the leading detergent brand in those years and theSoap operawas born 36

While critics basically worry about the subtle influence of the economy on the media, there are also examples of blunt exertion of influence. The US companyChrysler, before it merged withDaimler Benzhad its agency (PentaCom) send out a letter to numerous magazines, demanding that they send an overview of all the topics before the next issue was published, to avoid potential conflict. Chrysler most of all wanted to know if there would be articles with sexual, political or social content, or which could be seen as provocative or offensive. PentaCom executive David Martin said: Our reasoning is, that anyone looking at a 22.000 $ product would want it surrounded by positive things. There is nothing positive about an article on child pornography.36In another example, the USA Network held top-level‚ off-the-record meetings with advertisers in 2000 to let them tell the network what type of programming content they wanted in order for USA to get their advertising.37Television shows are created to accommodate the needs of advertising, e.g. splitting them up in suitable sections. Their dramaturgy is typically designed to end in suspense or leave an unanswered question in order to keep the viewer attached.

The movie system, at one time outside the direct influence of the broader marketing system, is now fully integrated into it through the strategies of licensing, tie-ins and product placements. The prime function of many Hollywood films today is to aid in the selling of the immense collection of commodities.38The press called the 2002 Bond film Die Another Day featuring 24 major promotional partners an ad-venture and noted thatJames Bondnow has been licensed to sell As it has become standard practice to place products in motion pictures, it has self-evident implications for what types of films will attract product placements and what types of films will therefore be more likely to get made.39

Advertising and information are increasingly hard to distinguish from each other. The borders between advertising and media . become more and more blurred. What August Fischer, chairman of the board ofAxel Springerpublishing company considers to be a proven partnership between the media and advertising business critics regard as nothing but the infiltration of journalistic duties and freedoms. According toRTL Groupformer executive Helmut Thoma private stations shall not and cannot serve any mission but only the goal of the company which is the acceptance by the advertising business and the viewer. The setting of priorities in this order actually says everything about the design of the programmes by private television.36Patrick Le Lay, former managing director of TF1, a private French television channel with a market share of 25 to 35%, said: There are many ways to talk about television. But from the business point of view, lets be realistic: basically, the job of TF1 is, e. g. to help Coca Cola sell its product. () For an advertising message to be perceived the brain of the viewer must be at our disposal. The job of our programmes is to make it available, that is to say, to distract it, to relax it and get it ready between two messages. It is disposable human brain time that we sell to Coca Cola.40

Because of these dependencies, a widespread and fundamental public debate about advertising and its influence on information and freedom of speech is difficult to obtain, at least through the usual media channels: it would saw off the branch it was sitting on. The notion that the commercial basis of media, journalism, and communication could have troubling implications for democracy is excluded from the range of legitimate debate just as capitalism is off-limits as a topic of legitimate debate in US political culture.41

An early critic of the structural basis of US journalism wasUpton Sinclairwith his novelThe Brass Checkin which he stresses the influence of owners, advertisers, public relations, and economic interests on the media. In his book Our Masters Voice Advertising the social ecologistJames Rorty(18901973) wrote: The gargoyles mouth is a loudspeaker, powered by the vested interest of a two-billion dollar industry, and back of that the vested interests of business as a whole, of industry, of finance. It is never silent, it drowns out all other voices, and it suffers no rebuke, for it is not the voice of America? That is its claim and to some extent it is a just claim…42

It has taught us how to live, what to be afraid of, what to be proud of, how to be beautiful, how to be loved, how to be envied, how to be successful.. Is it any wonder that the American population tends increasingly to speak, think, feel in terms of this jabberwocky? That the stimuli of art, science, religion are progressively expelled to the periphery of American life to become marginal values, cultivated by marginal people on marginal time?43

Performances, exhibitions, shows, concerts, conventions and most other events can hardly take place without sponsoring.citation neededArtists are graded and paid according to their arts value for commercial purposes. Corporations promote renowned artists, thereby getting exclusive rights in global advertising campaigns. Broadway shows like La Bohme featured commercial props in their sets.44

Advertising itself is extensively considered to be a contribution to culture. Advertising is integrated into fashion. On many pieces of clothing the companylogois the only design or is an important part of it. There is only a little room left outside the consumption economy, in which culture and art can develop independently and where alternative values can be expressed. A last important sphere, the universities, is under strong pressure to open up for business and its interests.45

Competitive sports have become unthinkable without sponsoring and there is a mutual dependency.citation neededHigh income with advertising is only possible with a comparable number of spectators or viewers. On the other hand, the poor performance of a team or a sportsman results in less advertising revenues. Jrgen Hther and Hans-Jörg Stiehler talk about a Sports/Media Complex which is a complicated mix of media, agencies, managers, sports promoters, advertising etc. with partially common and partially diverging interests but in any case with common commercial interests. The media presumably is at centre stage because it can supply the other parties involved with a rare commodity, namely (potential) public attention. In sports the media are able to generate enormous sales in both circulation and advertising.46

Sports sponsorship is acknowledged by the tobacco industry to be valuable advertising. A Tobacco Industry journal in 1994 described the Formula One car as The most powerful advertising space in the world. . In a cohort study carried out in 22 secondary schools in England in 1994 and 1995 boys whose favourite television sport was motor racing had a 12.8% risk of becoming regular smokers compared to 7.0% of boys who did not follow motor racing.47

Not the sale of tickets but transmission rights, sponsoring and merchandising in the meantime make up the largest part of sports associations and sports clubs revenues with the IOC (International Olympic Committee) taking the lead. The influence of the media brought many changes in sports including the admittance of new trend sports into theOlympic Games, the alteration of competition distances, changes of rules, animation of spectators, changes of sports facilities, the cult of sports heroes who quickly establish themselves in the advertising and entertaining business because of their media value48and last but not least, the naming and renaming of sport stadiums after big companies. In sports adjustment into the logic of the media can contribute to the erosion of values such as equal chances or fairness, to excessive demands on athletes through public pressure and multiple exploitation or to deceit (doping, manipulation of results ). It is in the very interest of the media and sports to counter this danger because media sports can only work as long as sport exists.48

Every visually perceptible place has potential for advertising, especially urban areas with their structures but also landscapes in sight of thoroughfares are more and more turning into media for advertisements. Signs, posters,billboards, flags have become decisive factors in the urban appearance and their numbers are still on the increase.Outdoor advertisinghas become unavoidable. Traditional billboards and transit shelters have cleared the way for more pervasive methods such as wrapped vehicles, sides of buildings, electronic signs, kiosks, taxis, posters, sides of buses, and more. Digital technologies are used on buildings to sport urbanwall displays. In urban areas commercial content is placed in our sight and into our consciousness every moment we are in public space. The German Newspaper Zeit called it a new kind of dictatorship that one cannot escape.5

Over time, this domination of the surroundings has become the natural state. Through long-term commercial saturation, it has become implicitly understood by the public that advertising has the right to own, occupy and control every inch of available space. The steady normalization of invasive advertising dulls the publics perception of their surroundings, re-enforcing a general attitude of powerlessness toward creativity and change, thus a cycle develops enabling advertisers to slowly and consistently increase the saturation of advertising with little or no public outcry.49

The massive optical orientation toward advertising changes the function of public spaces which are utilised by brands. Urban landmarks are turned into trademarks. The highest pressure is exerted on renown and highly frequented public spaces which are also important for the identity of a city (e.g.Piccadilly CircusTimes SquareAlexanderplatz). Urban spaces are public commodities and in this capacity they are subject to aesthetical environment protection, mainly through building regulations, heritage protection and landscape protection. It is in this capacity that these spaces are now being privatised. They are peppered with billboards and signs, they are remodelled into media for advertising.1617

Advertising has an agenda setting function which is the ability, with huge sums of money, to put consumption as the only item on the agenda. In the battle for a share of thepublic consciencethis amounts to non-treatment (ignorance) of whatever is not commercial and whatever is not advertised for

With increasing force, advertising makes itself comfortable in theprivate sphereso that the voice of commerce becomes the dominant way of expr

Half of food and drink TV ads seen by childrenre for unhealthy products – study

UK ministers urged to limit food ads before 9pm watershed as childhood obesity soars

Wed 30 May 201819.01 EDTLast modified on Fri 1 Jun 201806.29 EDT

Half of food and drink advertisements children see on television are for junk food, sugary drinks and outlets such as McDonalds, prompting fresh calls for tougher action to limit exposure to them.

The research from the Institute for Fiscal Studies comes amid calls for the government to impose much tougher restrictions on the ability of food manufacturers and retailers toadvertise junk foodsas part of a crackdown onchildhood obesity.

The advertising of such foods during childrens programmes has been banned since 2007. But research by the broadcasting regulator Ofcom has shown that children spend 64% of their TV viewing time watching shows not aimed specifically at them.

Health, medical and childrens organisations want ministers to introduce a tougher regime as part of the second phase of their childhood obesity strategy, due later this year.

An IFS briefing paper on theexposure of children aged 4-15 to food and drink advertisingon the small screen says: 50% of the TV advertising for food and drinks that children saw in 2015 was for products that are HFSS [high in fat, salt or sugar] or for restaurants and bars. [Of that] 39% was for products that were HFSS [and] 11% was for restaurants and bars, the majority of which was for fast food chains. (Over half of this was for McDonalds).

Significantly, 70% of theads children see for HFSS productsgo out before the 9pm TV viewing watershed. Health campaigners are urging the government to ban all HFSS advertising before that time, because of the large numbers of under-18s who watch programmes in the early evening.

In 2015, up to 35% of the TV adverts for food and drink that children saw would have been directly affected had restrictions applied before the watershed, said Rebekah Stroud, a research economist at the IFS and co-author of the briefing.

Ads for HFSS products shown in breaks during family entertainment shows such as ITVs The X Factor have attracted particular concern because children make up a large proportion of their audience.

This report demonstrates in stark fashion the critical urgency of tackling our nationwide childhood obesity crisis, said Sharon Hodgson MP, Labours public health minister.

The prime minister must deliver substantial action in this years revised childhood obesity strategy, and stop her governments reckless cuts to local authority and education budgets.

The findings come days after NHS figures showed that 22,646 children aged 10 and 11 in England in school year six one in 25 of that year group are severely obese. That means they have been found to have a body mass index of at least 40.

A Department of Health and Social Care spokesperson said ministers were preparing further action on childhood obesity.Our sugar tax is funding school sports programmes and nutritious breakfasts for the poorest children, and were investing in further research into the links between obesity and inequality.

Weve always said that our 2016 plan was the start of the conversation, not the final word on obesity. We are in the process of working up an updated plan, and will be in a position to say more shortly.

This article and its headline were amended on 1 June 2018 to make it clear that the IFS study found that 50% of food and drink TV advertising seen by children, not half of all TV advertising, was for high-sugar or high-fat products.

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