is the number of times a person must be exposed to an advertisingmessagebefore a response is made and before exposure is considered wasteful.
The subject on effective frequency is quite controversial. Many people have their own definition on what this word means. There are also numerous studies with their owntheoriesor models as to what the correct number is for effective frequency.
There are several definitions of effective frequency. The following are some key examples:
defines effective frequency as Exposures to an advertising message required to achieve effectivecommunication. Generally expressed as a range below which the exposure is inadequate and above which the exposure is considered wastage.
defines it as Advertising the theory that aconsumerhas to be exposed to an ad at least three times within a purchasing cycle (time between two consecutive purchases) to buy thatproduct.
defines it as An advertisers determination of the optimum number ofexposure opportunitiesrequired to effectively convey the advertising message to the desiredaudienceortarget market.
says Effective frequency can mean that a single advertising exposure is able to influence the purchase of abrand. However, as all experienced advertising people know, the phrase was really coined tocommunicatethe idea that there must be enough concentration ofmedia weightto cross a threshold. Repetition was considered necessary, and there had to be enough of it within the period before a consumer buys a product to influence his or her choice ofbrand.
In 187980,Hermann Ebbinghausconductedresearchon highermental processes; he replicated the entire procedure in 18834. Ebbinghaus methods achieved a remarkable set of results.
He was the first to describe the shape of thelearning curve. He reported that the time required to memorize an averagenonsense syllableincreases sharply as the number of syllables increases.
He discovered thatdistributing learningtrials over time is more effective in memorizing nonsense syllables than massingpracticeinto a single session; and he noted that continuing to practice material after the learning criterion has been reached enhances retention.
Using one of his methods calledsavings as an index, he showed that the most commonly accepted law of association, viz.,association by contiguity(the idea that items next to one another are associated) had to be modified to includeremote associations(associations between items that are not next to one another in a list).
He was the first to describeprimacyandrecency effects(the fact that early and late items in a list are more likely to be recalled than middle items), and to report that even a small amount of initial practice, far below that required for retention, can lead to savings atrelearning.
He even addressed the question ofmemorizationof meaningful material and estimated that learning such material takes only about one tenth of the effort required to learn comparable nonsense material.
This learning curve research has been used to help researches study advertising message retention.
Thomas Smith wrote a guide calledSuccessful Advertisingin 1885.The saying he used is still being used today.
The first time people look at any given ad, they dont even see it.
The second time, they dont notice it.
The third time, they are aware that it is there.
The fourth time, they have a fleeting sense that theyve seen it somewhere before.
The fifth time, they actually read the ad.
The sixth time they thumb their nose at it.
The seventh time, they start to get a little irritated with it.
The eighth time, they start to think, Heres that confounded ad again.
The ninth time, they start to wonder if theyre missing out on something.
The tenth time, they ask their friends and neighbors if theyve tried it.
The eleventh time, they wonder how the company is paying for all these ads.
The twelfth time, they start to think that it must be a good product.
The thirteenth time, they start to feel the product has value.
The fourteenth time, they start to remember wanting a product exactly like this for a long time.
The fifteenth time, they start to yearn for it because they cant afford to buy it.
The sixteenth time, they accept the fact that they will buy it sometime in the future.
The seventeenth time, they make a note to buy the product.
The eighteenth time, they curse theirpovertyfor not allowing them to buy this terrific product.
The nineteenth time, they count their money very carefully.
The twentieth time prospects see the ad, they buy what is offering.
Herbert E. Krugmanwrote Why Three Exposures may be enough while he was employed atGeneral Electric.His theory has been adopted and widely use in the advertising arena. The following statementencapsulateshis theory: Let me try to explain the special qualities of one, two and three exposures. I stop at three because as you shall see there is no such thing as a fourth exposure psychologically; rather fours, fives, etc., are repeats of the third exposure effect.
Exposure No. 1 is…a What is it? type of… response. Anything new ornovelno matter how uninteresting on second exposure has to elicit some response the first time…if only to discard the object as of no further interest…The second exposure…response…is What of it?…whether or not [the message] has personal relevance…
By the third exposure the viewer knows hes been through his What is its? and What of its?, and the third, then, becomes the true reminder . . . The importance of this view . . . is that it positions advertising as powerful only when the viewer…is interested in the [product message]…Secondly, it positions the viewer as…reacting to the commercialvery quickly…when the proper time comes round.
There is amythin the advertising world that viewers will forget your message if you dont repeat your advertising often enough. It is this myth that supports many large advertising expenditures…I would rather say the public comes closer to forgetting nothing they have seen on TV. They just put it out of their minds until and unless it has some use . . . and [then] the response to the commercial continues.
According to Krugman, there are only three levels of exposure in psychological, not media, terms: Curiosity, recognition and decision.
The following is a list of articles and books on the subject of various theories and models of advertising.
What is the Short-term Effect of Advertising?
. Marketing Science Institute 1971 (Book)
Carry-over Effects in Advertising Communication: Evidence and Hypotheses from Behavioral Science
. Marketing Science Institute. 1976 (Book)
Batra, Rajeev, Donald R. Lehmann, Joanne Burke, and Jae Pae. When Advertising Have An Impact? A Study of Tracking Data.Journal of Advertising Research35, 5 (1995): 1932
Chessa, Antonio, and Jaap Murre. A new memory model for ad impact and scheduling. Think of media impacts as incidents of learning. Then apply the maths of learning theory, and, hey presto! Guidelines for scheduling appear. Admap, 36(3; ISSU 145), 3740.
Craig, C. Samuel, Brian Sternthal, and Clark Leavite. Advertising Wearout: An Experimental Analysis. Journal of Marketing Research 13, 4 (1976): 356372
Lawrence D. Gibson. What Can One TV Exposure Do? Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 36, 1996
Stephen J. Hoch, and John Deighton. Managing What Consumers Learn from Experience. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, No. 2 (Apr., 1989), pp.120
John Philip Jones. Ad Spending: Maintaining Market Share. Harvard Business Review 68, 1 (1990): 3841
John Philip Jones. Single-Source Research Begins to Fulfill Its Promise. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 35, 1995
Herbert E. Krugman. The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement Public Opinion Quarterly, volume 29, page 349, 1965.
Herbert E. Krugman. Why Three Exposures May Be Enough. Journal of Advertising Research 12, 6 (1972): 1114
Leonard M Lodish, Magid Abraham, Stuart Kalmenson, Jeanne Livelsberger, Beth Lubftkin, Bruce Richardson, and Mary Ellen Stevens. How TV Advertising Works: A Meta-Analysis of 389 Real World Split Cable TV Advertising Experiments. Journal of Marketing Research 32, 2 (1995): 125139
Deborah MacInnis, Ambar Rao, Bernard Jaworski. Advertising Context, Consumer Response and Brand Sales: Findings from Split-Cable Television Experiments. Working Paper. University of Southern California, 1997
Cornelia Pechmann and David W. Stewart. Loyalty and Brand Purchase: A Two Stage Model of Choice. Journal of Marketing Research 25, 2 (1988)
Cornelia Pechmann and David W. Stewart. Advertising Repetition: A Critical Review of Wearin and Wearout. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising 11, 2 (1992): 285330
Gerard J. Tellis. Advertising Exposure, Loyalty and Brand Purchase: A Two Stage Model of Choice. Journal of Marketing Research 25, 2 (1988) 138144
Hubert A. Zielske. The Remembering and Forgetting of Advertising. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 23, No. 3 pp.239243 (Jan., 1959)
Effective Frequency Definition Define Effective Frequency What Is It?
Jones, John Philip. What Does Effective Frequency Mean in 1997? (Part 1 of 2).
, 37 (4): 14-17, July 1997.ISSN0021-8499.
Hermann Ebbinghuas. (1885: English 1913)Memory. Intelegen Inc.
Thomas Smith, Successful Advertising, 7th edn, 1885
Herbert E. Krugman (1965).The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement.
Promotion and marketing communications
This page was last edited on 27 September 2017, at 02:34