Global Warming

of heat. When scientists add up all of the heat warming the oceans, land, and atmosphere and melting the ice, they find our climate is accumulating 4 Hiroshima atomic bombs worth of heat every second.

This warming is due to more heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels means we are emitting billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide every year. This is the main contributor to global warming.

To communicate the sheer amount of heat our planet is accumulating, we have created this widget, embeddable on blogs and also available as a Facebook app, an iPad app, and an iPhone app. To help get the word out on just how much global warming our planet is experiencing, add the widget to your own blog or use the widget on Facebook, like it and share it.

To get the iPhone or iPad app, visit this site on your device and use the big Get… button to get instructions. The app is not available through the Apple App Store.

The earth has warmed rapidly over the past century due mainly to human activity, and especially over the past few decades. The increased greenhouse effect has warmed the land and air and melted ice, but most of it (about 90%) has gone into heating the oceans. Several Skeptical Science contributors worked together to publish a scientific paper1which combined the land, air, ice, and ocean warming data. It found that for recent decades the earth has been heating at a rate of 250 trillion Joules per second.

Joules per second is a difficult unit of measure to appreciate, and is especially foreign to people who are unfamiliar with science. This widget attempts to put that heating into terms that are easier to visualize. 250 trillion Joules per second is equivalent to:

Detonating four Hiroshima atomic bombs per second

Experiencing two Hurricane Sandys per second

Enduring four 6.0 Richter scale earthquakes per second

Being struck by 500,000 lightning bolts per second

Exploding more than eight Big Ben towers, with every inch packed full of dynamite, per second

The earths climate system absorbs heat in many different ways. Increases in the temperatures that people experience day to day are only one of several reservoirs for accumulating heat. While changes in the atmosphere are the easiest to recognize, they are also the most variable and subject to noise. Changes in the ocean, where most of the heat is going, have been more steady, while the melting of vast stores of ice is accelerating. The earth continues to warm, day after day, at a concerning rate.

When the energy from all of the earths heat reservoirs is combined, the clear, decades long trend is unequivocal and staggering. With the exception of short hiatus periods, the earth has been gaining heat, virtually continuously, at an average rate of 250trillionJoules per second, and this trend shows no serious sign of ending.

Without greenhouse gases, the temperature at the surface of the earth would be a mere -15C (5F). Life on earth is made possible by greenhouse gases.

The earths atmosphere is mostly transparent to incoming sunlight, which passes through and warms the surface of the earth. Warm objects in turn emit another wavelength of light, one invisible to the human eye, termed infrared radiation. Like visible light, infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere and into space.

But small traces of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, arenottransparent to infrared radiation. They absorb and re-emit that energy, trapping some of that heat within the atmosphere.

Changes in the climate are visible all around us. Some are subtle and seemingly inconsequential, but these changes are accelerating and undeniable.

Spring comes earlier. Tree lines and species are migrating poleward and upward. Glaciers and Arctic ice are retreating at an alarming rate4. Sea levels are rising5. Every day, more and more studies point towards a changing and warming world in new and sometimes unexpected ways.

The indicators that recent climate change is the result of burning fossil fuels, rather than from some unknown natural variation, are clear and consistent with what we do know.

There are subtle differences to how the world will warm due to greenhouse gases compared with other potential sources (such as an increase in the warmth of the sun). Most importantly, scientists know that greenhouse gases would cause the upper atmosphere to cool rather than warm.

We also know that the source of the additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is due to burning fossil fuels. The carbon in fossil fuels differs from atmospheric carbon because it has less of the isotope known as13C (Carbon-13), a heavier-than-normal version of carbon. Plants generally prefer the lighter and more common12C (Carbon-12) for photosynthesis, so fossil fuels, which are produced from decayed plant matter, are deficient in13C. As a result, when we burn fossil fuels we cause the percentage of 13C in the atmosphere to drop, and this change has been detected.

Scientists have established that climate change greater than 2C (4F) will likely be extremely dangerous. We are likely to have committed our planet to that degree of warming when atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations reach 450 ppm (parts per million). The natural, pre-industrial level of carbon dioxide (CO2) was around 285 ppm. The level of CO2is currently near 400 ppm.

That level of carbon dioxide, 400 ppm, has not been seen in the atmosphere for millions of years.

At the current rate, adding 2 ppm per year, we will reach 450 ppm around the year 2038, a mere 25 years from now.

Not all effects of climate change can be anticipated, and not all effects that are anticipated may come to pass, but the number of expected, negative impacts on human society present a clear and worrying danger.28Some of these impacts are already being felt, to varying degrees, although many will not seriously present themselves until temperatures increase by 2C or more (although we have already committed to more than 1.4C of warming, depending on actual climate sensitivity).

Ecosystem changes, species range shifts and extinctions

Increased and more frequent damage from storms, fires and floods

Changes and increases in disease vectors

Increased morbidity and mortality from heat waves, floods and droughts

It is important to realize that no matter how strong these impacts are felt now, they will grow worse over time, and when they do, we will have no ability to reverse any of them.

More than 90% of all heat being absorbed by the earth, each and every day, is going into the oceans.

The ocean, when viewed from a climate perspective, is often considered in three layers:

2000 meters down to the bottom (average is about 3800 meters).

For some time, scientists believed that ocean warming would be restricted to the upper 700 meters and that global warming would take a very long time to penetrate deeper than that. Recent studies2and modern measurement techniques have shown, however, that the ocean below 700 meters is heating as well, and the amount of energy that it takes to do so is staggerring.

Scientists2use ocean heat content measurements fromARGO floats, as well as data from expendable bathythermographs (XBT) and mechanical bathythermographs (MBT).

Argois an international project to collect information on the temperature and salinity of the upper part of the worlds oceans. Argo uses robotic floats that spend most of their life drifting below the ocean surface, reaching depths of 2000m and spending periods of approximately 10 days below the surface. Floats take temperature and salinity measurements as they rise to the surface. After surfacing they transmit their data to satellites and then submerge to repeat the data collection cycle. Currently, there are roughly 3000 floats producing 100,000 temperature/salinity profiles per year.

A bathythermograph is an instrument which has a temperature sensor and is thrown overboard from ships to record pressure and temperature changes as it drops through the water. These were the main instruments used to measure OHC before the ARGO float network was deployed starting about a decade ago to provide more accurate and consistent data.

The ocean accounts for more than 90% of the heat absorbed by the earth in the past 30 years.

The total increase in heat content of the oceans over the period from 1955-2010 was 24 x 10

(240,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) Joules.

The energy absorbed by the oceans will not quickly dissipate.

As the ocean warms it expands, leading to marked sea level rise.

Increased ocean temperatures help to warm the atmosphere.

Increased ocean temperatures help to generate and intensify storms.

Warmer waters, combined with ocean acidification, are pushing some forms of marine life beyond their limits.

Changes in the temperature of the earths atmosphere are the easiest to measure and the most obvious in an individuals personal experience, but the atmosphere is also the most variable. One very warm year can be followed by several cold ones, while one region may experience an unusual cold snap while many other parts of the globe endure record warmth. Many factors can influence global atmospheric temperatures over short time frames of a few years, which in turn disguises the insistent, uninterrupted warming which is occurring overall.

Nevertheless, the atmosphere has warmed by 0.8C (1.4F) in the past century. This warming is more exaggerated at the poles, leading to even greater swings in temperatures further from the equator. Yet it still accounts for only 2% of total heat absorbed by the earths climate.

Scientists and statisticians have worked together to try to quantify and eliminate the most obvious forms of variability in global atmospheric temperatures by using standard statistical methods. In one study6, the authors found that after removing the influence of the most significant three factors (ENSO events, solar variations, and aerosols) the seemingly chaotic, drunken meanderings of the earths temperature straightened into a clear, steady increase in global temperatures.

In particular, in the past decade, a quiet sun, an increase in La Niña (cold) events, and an increase in aerosols have worked totemporarilyslow global warming. This sort of hiatus period is often seen in climate models, when negative factors happen to combine to temporarily overwhelm the global warming signal. It is clear, however, from the evidence that any respite is temporary.

The atmosphere, ocean, land and ice continue to absorb heat, and global warming is going to continue well into our future.

The Pacific is not only the worlds largest ocean, but it also boasts by far the largest expanse of water along the equator, where the suns rays are strongest. Periodic events, termed El Niño and La Niña, lead to three common states in the equatorial regions of the Pacific. These states in turn affect air temperatures and precipitaiton around the globe, and so are keys to understanding and predictingshort-termclimate variations.

El Niño events denote the spread of warmer than usual waters across much of the equatorial Pacific. This raises temperatures globally.

La Niña events denote the piling up of warmer waters in the western Pacific and the spread of cooler than usual waters across the eastern Pacific, off the coast of South America. This reduces temperatures globally.

ENSO neutral conditions, when neither an El Niño nor a La Niña is present, is the third state.

One way to view temperature changes without the confusing influences of ENSO events is to compare apples to apples. Compare all El Niño events to each other, La Niña to each other, and neutral conditions. When this is done, again, the constant, upward trend in global temperatures becomes clear.

The sun supplies virtually all of the energy that fuels the earths climate, butchangesin solar activity are necessary to account for changes in the earths climate. While the sun did warm slightly in the early part of the Twentieth century, it has since begun to quiet again. These minor changes in solar output, however, are not nearly strong enough to account for warming this century, although they do contribute somewhat to dampening recent anthropogenic warming. A hot sun, for example, emits roughly 1367 Watts/meter2, while a cool sun emits 1365.5 Watts/meter2, a difference between hot and cold of only about one tenth of one percent.

One study7used a statistical test on the temperature data, and found that while solar activity can account for about 11% of the global warming from 1889 to 2006, it can only account for 1.6% of the warming from 1955 to 2005, and had a slight cooling effect (-0.004C per decade) from 1979 to 2005. Multiple other studiesconfirm this conclusion.

Volcanoes emit sulfate aerosols which reflect incoming sunlight, cooling the planet. A large volcanic eruption such as the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 can have a global cooling effect of 0.10.3C (0.180.54F) for several years10.

However, mega-eruptions or a series of eruptions can have a cooling effect that take decades to wear off, giving a perceived warming effect as temperatures return to normal. Scientists have studied past volcanoes11, particularly over the past few centuries, and found that early 20thcentury warming resulted, in part, from a recovery from earlier periods of heavy vulcanism. In short, a lack of volcanic activity had some part in temperature rise over the first half of the 20thcentury. However, it has played little part in the modern global warming trend that began in the 1970s.

More recently, in the past decade, scientists12have found that the increase in greenhouse gases was exceeded by an even greater increase in sunlight-reflecting sulfate aerosols, which originate from the rapid industrialization of China. Chinese coal-burning in particular doubled in the 4 years from 2003-2007, and makes up some 77% of the 26% global aerosol increase over that time. Unfortunately, aerosols fall out of the atmosphere fairly quickly, while carbon dioxide remains there for centuries or longer.

Only 2.3% of warming goes into the atmosphere.

Within one year, from summer to winter, global mean tropospheric temperatures vary by as much as 1.5C (2.7F).

Year to year, from one season to the next, global mean tropospheric temperatures can vary by as much as 1C (1.8F).

Year to year, from one season to the next, global mean surface air temperatures can vary by as much as 0.2C (0.36°F).

A minimum of 17 years is needed to accurately detect and confirm a

a steady change in the rise of atmospheric temperatures.

A variety of natural (temporary) factors combined in the past decade to produce a strong

influence on atmospheric temperatures.

The known anthropogenic warming component has offset and overpowered natural cooling factors, so that a slight warming trend is still detectable.

Natural cooling factors (a preponderance of La Niña events, weak solar output, increased anthropogenic aerosols) are temporary, while the effects of anthropogenic CO

Scientists have successfully measured air temperatures around the globe, both at the surface and in the troposphere and stratosphere, in the present as well as in the distant past.

Surface air temperatures have been accurately measured and homogenized meaning made comparable using scientific instruments and rigorous collection and analysis techniques.

Tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures have been accurately measured using an array of long-lived satellites which measure the radiation, primarily microwaves, emitted by the atmosphere.

Past temperatures have been measured using a variety of different proxies, which have been compared to check their validity and confirm their accuracy. Proxy methods include the measurement of the frequency of stable atmoic isotopes, such as17O and18O (heavy hydrogen), in ice cores and ocean sediments, the evaluation of ancient pollen, flora and fauna in lake and ocean sediments,and other methods.

Until 2001, scientists had mostly concentrated on detecting heat uptake by the atmosphere and oceans and by melting ice. That year, however, a group of scientists published a study3which attempted to measure the heat uptake by the lithosphere the outermost rocky shell of the earth. That study found that heat absorbed by land actually roughtly matches the amount of heat absorbed by melting ice (such as the Greenland Ice Sheet, polar ice caps, and glaciers). The heat absorbed (only) by land also substantially matches that absorbed to date by the atmosphere.

Thus, the heat uptake by the continents is a tangible and necessary component in computing the total increase in heat in the entire earth system due to anthropogenic warming. This uptake accounts for about 2% of the heat absorbed by the earths climate system.

The earth houses vast amounts of water in the form of (once) permanent ice. This includes ice at the Arctic and Antarctic poles, the Greenland Ice Sheet, and over 130,000 glaciers. Due to global warming, much of this ice is melting at an alarming rate26. That permanent ice melt, in turn, absorbs a lot of heat and produces a vast amount of liquid water. Still, this ice melt only accounts for 2% of the total heat absorbed by the earths climate.

Arctic ice represents one pole (which is very different from the other). The Arctic is an ocean, surrounded by land, at one end of the globe (the North Pole). In that position, for a good portion of the year it receives no sunlight at all, while for an equal portion it receives extended, albeit very indirect, daylight at times for 24 hours a day.

With this dynamic, the water in the Arctic is able to freeze over completely during the winter. In the summer months, some Arctic ice has always melted, but prior to recent decades, the bulk of the ice remained completely frozen. Since 1979, scientists have been using satellites to track the ice extent, which is erratically but systematically shrinking. Satellite radar altimetry and satellite laser altimetry find that Arctic sea ice has also been thinning. The Arctic is expected to have a completely ice free summer sometime this century21. This means that each winter the ice is not re-freezing to the winter extent and volume of the previous year.

Year after year, despite the ongoing fluctuations, the Arctic is losing ice mass.

Antarctic ice represents one pole (which is very different from the other). Antarctica is a continent, at one end of the globe (the South Pole). In that position, for a good portion of the year it receives no sunlight at all, while for an equal portion it receives extended, albeit very indirect, daylight at times for 24 hours a day. Due to the altitude of its mountains it contains masses of ice which have no opportunity to melt, regardless of climate change.

At lower altitudes, the ice is subject to melting. Beyond this, much of the ice in Antarctica rests in the ocean, submerged by its own weight. But as the ocean waters warm, that ice is melting from beneath22. The result of this warming is that Antarctica is losing ice mass23.

Winter Antarcticsea iceextent is increasing, although it melts completely back to the Antarctic coast each summer, so it is of no consequence in the planetary heat budget. Ozone levels over Antarctica have dropped causing stratospheric cooling and increasing winds, which lead to more areas of open water that can be frozen24. In addition, the Southern Ocean is freshening because of increased rain and snowfall as well as an increase in meltwater coming from the edges of Antarcticas land ice25. Fresh water freezes more readily than salt water.

Arctic sea ice is thinning and losing mass.

Summer Arctic sea ice is gradually retreating, and may be completely gone within this century.

The Antarctic Ice Sheet is losing mass.

The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass.

The vast majority of the worlds glaciers are losing mass.

Melted ice will add dramatically to sea level rise.

Less ice means less reflected sunlight, which will add significantly to global warming.

Melting ice currently accounts for about 2% of the earths climate system heat uptake.

Scientists employ a variety of instruments and craft to measure ice mass. In the early 20thcentury, such measurements were restricted to visiting and directly observing the outer edges of the Arctic ice pack. Scientists still visit the reaches of the earth, using ever more sophisticated instruments, including floating buoys with arrays of sensors and cameras, to catalog the state of the Cryopshere the world of snow and ice on earth.

Today, changes in the elevation of large ice sheets are measured with extreme accuracy using both laser and radar altimetry. Sensors based on aircraft or satellites measure the distance from the sensor to the ice surface. By repeating the measurements over time, changes are determined. The twin GRACE satellites, launched by NASA in 2002, use lasers to measure minute changes in the distance between the two craft. These variations in distance in turn reflect variations in mass in the earth below, and so act as a measurement (again, over time) of changes in mass loss of the ice sheets. Other satellites use photography, both visible and infra-red, to catalog the ice extents in the Arctic and the size of glaciers.

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Skeptical Science, Nuccitelli et al. (2012) Show that Global Warming Continues

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Skeptical Science, Levitus et al. Find Global Warming Continues to Heat the Oceans

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Skeptical Science, Foster and Rahmstorf Measure the Global Warming Signal

Skeptical Science, Did global warming stop in

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Skeptical Science, Lean and Rind Estimate Human and Natural Global Warming

Skeptical Science, Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions

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Skeptical Science, Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions

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Skeptical Science, Huber and Knutti Quantify Man-Made Global Warming

Skeptical Science, Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions

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Skeptical Science, How do volcanoes drive climate?

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Skeptical Science, How do volcanoes drive climate?

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Skeptical Science, Why Wasnt The Hottest Decade Hotter?

Alex S. Gardner, Geir Moholdt, Bert Wouters, Gabriel J. Wolken, David O. Burgess, Martin J. Sharp, J. Graham Cogley, Carsten Braun, and Claude Labine, Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Nature 473, 357360 (19 May 2011) doi:10.1038/nature10089.

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Skeptical Science, Is Greenland gaining or losing ice? [Intermediate]

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Skeptical Science, Zebras? In Greenland? Really?

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Skeptical Science, Has Arctic sea ice returned to normal?

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Skeptical Science, East Antarctica Ice-Sheet more vulnerable to melting than we thought: new research

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Skeptical Science, Weighing change in Antarctica

Skeptical Science, Is Antarctica losing or gaining ice?

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Skeptical Science, Is Antarctica losing or gaining ice?

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Skeptical Science, Is Antarctica losing or gaining ice?

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from sites and emails.We may use technologies that automatically collect information when you visit our sites, view our advertisements, or use our products or services. For example, we use cookies (a tiny file stored on your computers browser) to tell us what browser and operating system you are using, your IP address, web pages you visit, links you click, or whether you have or have not opened an email from us.

from mobile applications and internet connected devices.To give you the best possible user experience, we may use technologies that collect information from your phone when you use our mobile apps or from smart devices in your home. You consent to do this when downloading the app or installing household internet connected devices. This information could include your mobile phone or other device advertising ID, information about your phones operating system, how you use the app or device, and your physical location. You will get a pop up notice on your phone or device that gives you the option to accept or reject allowing us to know your precise geolocation (exactly where you are standing or where you are accessing the internet).

from other places.We may get information that other companies share with or sell to us. For example, you may have given consent for another company to share your personal information with us when you signed up for telecom services or a retailer loyalty points program. We may also collect information from places that you know everyone can see, such as from internet postings, blog entries, videos, or social media sites. We may also receive information from other companies who are in the business of collecting or aggregating information about you sourced from publicly available databases or from consent you have given to their use and subsequently our use of your information. This might be information about your income level, age, gender, number of people in your family, and products you have bought on the internet or from stores in your neighborhood.

We use your information to help us meet our purpose of touching and improving the lives of people like you every day around the world. We use your information to respond to your questions or requests for information, send you products or samples you have requested, help you manage your P&G site or app preferences, allow you to enter our contests or sweepstakes, or process your payment for the products you buy from us. We may also use your non-personal information (e.g., purchase data, sample requests, etc.) in consumer research or analytics (or personal information when you have consented to participate in such research) to learn more about what consumers want so that we can make new products or improve the ones we already have.

Another way we use your information is to make sure that what you hear from us is relevant and useful to you as an individual. For example, we may send you information about Gillette® products if you have shown interest in our shaving products by visiting . When we do this, we will use your information a cookie ID or device ID — to limit the number of times you see the same advertisement from Gillette. We want you to hear from us about the products you use and love without you hearing the same message over and over again.

We may also use aggregate information from many people without identifying any individuals to better understand how our websites are being used or to study consumer habits so that we can make products and offer services that meet the needs of all consumers sharing some of the same things in common. For example, we can learn a lot about consumers who are new parents reading our baby product websites, so that we can better serve new parents everywhere with the products and services they want. Use of such non-personal information in this way helps to safeguard your privacy. We will always try to use non-personal information whenever possible for this reason.

To further protect your privacy, we will also use the least amount of information we can to accomplish the task at hand, put measures in place to prevent mixing information in ways that would allow cookie and device IDs to specifically and directly identify you (e.g., by name), and delete your information when we no longer need it for our business purposes.

We respect your personal information and take steps to protect it from loss, misuse, or alteration. Where appropriate, these steps can include technical measures like firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, unique and complex passwords, and encryption. We also use organizational and physical measures such as training staff on data processing obligations, identification of data incidents and risks, restricting staff access to your personal information, and ensuring physical security including appropriately securing documents when not being used

with other companies.When we have your consent, we may share your information with select partners so they can send you offers, promotions, or ads about products or services we believe you may be interested in. For example, people who receive P&G emails from our diaper brands such as Pampers® may also consent to hear about baby formulas made by other companies. We do not sell your personal information to marketers outside of P&G. We may share information that does not personally identify you with other companies for any purpose.

with service providers.We may need to share your information with companies who help us run our business, including hosting our sites, delivering our emails to you, analyzing the data we collect, and sending you the products and services you requested. We share only the personal information needed for these companies to complete the tasks we request. They are required to protect your information in the same way we do and will not share it or use it for any other purpose.other situations.If a brand or one of our businesses with which youve shared personal data is sold to another company, your data will be shared with that company. As a result, your account and the personal data in it will not be deleted unless you tell the brand or new company that you want it deleted. We may also share your information with companies who help us protect our rights and property, or when required by law or government authorities.

marketingYou can tell us to stop sending you email and text messages by following the opt-out instructions sent with these communications. You can also choose to stop receiving marketing email, SMS, or postal mailings byclicking here. While we will honor your choices, we may need to keep information to do so. For example, if you tell us to stop sending marketing emails, we will need your email address on file so that our systems remember that you no longer wish to receive marketing communications to that email address.accountsDepending upon the country where you registered, your P&G account may offer the ability to access your information and make updates to or delete your data. If not, you canclick hereto make a request.

european union residents.If you live in the EU, you may access the personal data we hold about you, request that inaccurate, outdated, or no longer necessary information be corrected, erased, or restricted, and ask us to provide your data in a format that allows you to transfer it to another service provider. You also may withdraw your consent at any time where we are relying on your consent for the processing of your personal data. And you may object to our processing of your personal data (this means ask us to stop using it) where that processing is based on our legitimate interest (this means we have a reason for using the data). If you would like more information about data protection and your personal data rights in general, please visit the European Data Protection Supervisors site at If you are not happy with our response to your requests, you may lodge a complaint with the data protection authority in your country. Please select from the following options to make your request:

general requests. To make a request with respect to personal data used for marketing, which would include for example information you provided us as you registered through one of our websites or apps, please contact ushere.

media advertising. To make a request with respect to personal data used for advertising, which would include for example information we may have about you at a cookie or device ID level and which we use to provide you with relevant ads, please contact ushere. There may also be data associated with your cookie or device ID in our demand-side (or ad-serving) and ad verification partner platforms. For that data, please seehereandhere.

consumer research. To make a request with respect to personal data we may have as part of your participation in one of our research studies, please see the contact information provided on your consent form or call or visit your research center.

dental professionals.If you are a dental professional and have provided your information to us as part of one of our professional outreach programs, including through please contact us through the appropriate country numbers and email addresses listed below.

Cookies are small files sent to your computer as you surf the web.  They store useful information about how you interact with the websites you visit.  Cookies do not collect any information stored on your computer or device or in your files.  Cookies do not contain any information that would directly identify you as a person.  Cookies show your computer and device only as randomly assigned numbers and letters (e.g., cookie ID ABC12345) and never as, for example, John E. Smith.

We use cookies for a number of reasons, such as:

to serve you with relevant advertising

to learn more about the way you interact with P&G content

help us improve your experience when visiting our websites

to remember your preferences, such as a language or a region, so there is no need for you to customize the website on each visit

to identify errors and resolve them

to analyze how well our websites are performing

These are the types of cookies we use:

Webpages have no memory. Session cookies remember you (using a randomly generated ID like: ABC12345) as you move from page to page so that you dont get asked to provide the same information youve already given on the site. For example, session cookies are extremely helpful when shopping onlinewithout them the items you place in your shopping cart would disappear by the time you reach the checkout! These cookies are deleted as soon as you leave our site or close your browser.

Persistent cookies allow sites to remember what you prefer when you come back again. For example, if you choose to read the site in French on your first visit, the next time you come back the site will appear automatically in French. Not having to select a language preference every time makes it more convenient, more efficient, and user-friendly for you.

These cookies can be used to learn about what interests you generally might have, based, for example, on the websites you visit and the products you buy. This can also help us infer things about you such your age, marital status, and how many kids you may have. That data allows us to send you ads for products and services that better fit the things you like or need. It also allows us to limit the number of times you see the same advertisement.

These cookies tell us how our websites are working. In many cases, we use Google analytics cookies to monitor the performance of our sites. Our ability to use and share information collected by Google Analytics about your visits to our sites is restricted by theGoogle Analytics Terms of Useand theGoogle Privacy Policy.

How you can control cookies.You can set your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent to your computer. However, this may prevent our sites or services from working properly. You can also set your browser to delete cookies every time you finish browsing.

Beacons send one-way signals to mobile apps you install on your phone over very short distances to tell you, for example, what products are on-sale as you walk through a store. Beacons only talk to your device when you get close enough and after you have given consent within the mobile application associated with a particular beacon. In turn, apps may provide us location information to help customize advertising and offers to you. For example, when you are near a beacon in the skin care section of a supermarket, we may send you a $4 off coupon.

These are small objects embedded into a web page, but are not visible. They are also known as tags, web bugs, or pixel gifs. We use pixels to deliver cookies to your computer, monitor our website activity, make logging into our sites easier, and for online marketing activity. We also include pixels in our promotional email messages or newsletters to determine whether you open and act on them.

mobile device identifiers and SDKs.

We use software code in our mobile apps to collect information similar to what cookies collect on the internet. This will be information like your mobile phone identifiers (iOS IDFAs and Android Advertising IDs) and the way you use our apps. Similar to cookies, the device information we collect automatically as you use our apps will never identify you as a person. We only know a mobile device as randomly assigned numbers and letters (e.g., advertising ID EFG4567) and never as, for example, John E. Smith.

We may receive information about your exact location from things like global positioning system (GPS) coordinates (longitude and latitude) when you use our mobile apps. You will always get a pop-up notice on your phone or device asking for you to accept or reject allowing us to know exactly where you are in the world. You should understand that we will not always ask for consent to know generally that you are in a broader city, postal code, or province. For example, we do not consider it to be precise location if all we know is that you are somewhere in Manila, Philippines.

When you visit our partner sites, we can show you ads or other content we believe you would like to see. For example, you may receive advertisements for Tide® laundry detergent if we notice that you are visiting sites that sell childrens clothing or school supplies. And from that information we may conclude that you have children and therefore could well be interested in a powerful laundry-cleaning product. In this way, we intend to send you relevant information about our products that might be of benefit to you.

we learn from groups of consumers sharing similar interests.We may place you into a particular group of consumers who show the same interests. For example, we may put you in the group of razor aficionados if we see you frequently purchase razors online or you could be a bargain-shopper if we notice you use online coupons or look for discounts or sales. We notice these things about you as you look at web pages, links you click on our websites and other websites you visit, mobile applications you use, or our brand emails you view and links you click in the emails. We group together cookie and device IDs to help us learn about general trends, habits, or characteristics from a group of consumers who all act similarly online and/or offline. By doing this, we can find and serve many others who look like those already in the group and thereby send them what we believe will be relevant and beneficial product offers and information.

we link other information to your cookie and device IDs.Your cookie and device IDs may be supplemented with other information, such as information about the products you buy offline or information that you provide directly to us when creating an account on our sites. We generally do this in ways that will not directly personally identify you. For example, we could know that cookie ID ABC12345 belongs to the razor aficionado group based on persons web site visits, age, gender, and shopping habits, but we would not know that persons name or address or other information that would identify him or her as a person. Should we ever want to personally identify your cookie or device information (web and app viewing history), we will always ask you before doing so.

we may know you across all of your computers, tablets, phones, and devices.We may know that cookie ID ABC12345 is from a computer that that may be connected to the same person or household owning the mobile phone with device ID EFG15647. This means that you may search for diapers on your laptop, click on a Google search result link which we have sponsored, and then later see an ad for our Pampers® brand diapers on your mobile phone. We might assume or deduce that the same person owns the computer and phone because, for example, they sign on to the same WiFi network every day at the same time. Understanding what devices seem to be used by a person or household helps us limit the number of times you see the same ad across all of your devices. And this is important because that way you dont get annoyed at us for spamming you with the same ad and we dont pay for such repetitive ads that we dont want you to receive.

how you can stop receiving interest-based ads.To stop receiving P&G interest-based advertising, you canclick hereor click on the WebChoices or AppChoices icons on one of our sites or in one of our mobile applications.You can also prevent getting interest-based ads on websites by declining cookies in your browser(s), declining the access to data requests that apps usually present when you install them, or by adjusting the ad tracking settings on your device.

you will still see contextual ads even if you opt out of interest-based ads.Even if we stop sending you interest-based ads, you will still get ads from our brands on your computer or mobile devices. These ads, however, are based on the context of the sites you visit and are called contextual ads. Unlike interest-based ads which are based on pages you visit on your mobile phone or computer viewing activities, contextual ads are ads shown to you based on the context of the specific site you are visiting. For example, you still may see an ad for one of our baby care brands while looking at nursery products online because these sites traditionally have had mostly new or expecting parents as visitors. You should also know that we may still collect information from your computer or devices and use it for other purposes like evaluating how our websites work, for consumer research, or detecting fraud.

deleting cookies also deletes your opt out.When you opt out of interest-based advertising, we send an opt-out cookie to your browser that tells us that you no longer want to receive interest-based ads from us. Your opt-out cookie will be deleted if you decide to deleteallcookies. This means that you will need to opt-out again if you still do not want to receive interest-based ads.

This section applies only to our processing of personal data of EU country residents. It aims to provide increased transparency into our processing, retention, and transfer of EU resident personal data that is in line with the letter and spirit of the General Data Protection Regulation.

entities.Different P&G entities may be the controller of your personal data. A data controller is the entity which directs the processing activity and is principally responsible for the data. The chart below identifies our data controllers for EU country data. For example, when you register for email on one of our French (.fr) websites, the P&G entity listed next to that country name will be the controller of that personal data (e.g., Procter & Gamble France SAS (LE 577).

Procter & Gamble Austria Zweigniederlassung der Procter & Gamble GmbH

For contests: Procter & Gamble Distribution SRL

For other sites: Procter & Gamble Marketing Romania SR

Procter and Gamble DS Polska sp z o.o.

Procter & Gamble Distribution Company (Europe) BVBA

Procter & Gamble Czech Republic s.r.o.

Procter & Gamble France SAS/Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals France SAS

Procter & Gamble Portugal, Productos de Consumo Higiene de Saude, S.A.

Procter & Gamble International Operations SA

processing and retention.As a general rule, we keep your data for only as long as it is needed to complete the purpose for which it was collected or as required by law. We may need to keep your data for longer than our specified retention periods to honor your requests, including to continue keeping you opted out of marketing emails, or to comply with legal or other obligations. This chart tells you the type of data we collect, the purposes for which we use it, why such uses comply with the law (legal basis), and how long we usually keep it (retention period).

Email, name, phone number, postal address, your affinities, your interests, your profession, your habits, what you bought, the photos or videos you upload, information about your children and your home, your family composition, the number of people in your household, your hair type, your skin type, your favorite scent, whether you have a pet, etc.

To send you materials marketing our products or services or the products or services of our partners.

Your consent for email and SMS and, where we obtain it, consent for postal. Legitimate interests for everything else.

Until you request to delete the personal data or withdraw your consent. If you do not make such a request, the personal data will be deleted on the following schedule:

Email, name, phone number, sometimes other data.

To provide contest participants with information about the contest, including announcing the winner(s) of the contest.

For 24 months unless local law requires us to retain it longer.

Email, name, phone number, payment information (including bank account IBAN or Paypal details), sometimes other data.

To process your purchases of our products, cashback offers, or warranties and to send you relevant communications related to that purchase.

As long as necessary to fulfill your order and follow up with communications about your order unless local law requires us to retain it longer. We also generally retain data for 24 months for cashback offers and 10 years for warranties.

Email, name, phone number, sometimes other data.

To address your inquiries and make sure we follow up appropriately or as may be required by law or P&G policy.

Our legitimate business interest in managing consumer inquiries, as well as your consent for special category data which may be collected in some adverse event cases.

From 0 to 10 years, depending on the nature of the inquiry, our legitimate interests for processing the data, and our legal obligations.

Email, name, phone number, address, identifiable photos or videos, sometimes other data.

To test our product ideas and learn about your preferences and practices so that we can improve our products and the lives of our consumers.

We will retain the personal data collected as part of substantive clinical research for as long as we need it for the purpose for which it was collected, and/or for as long as may be required to retain it by local law or regulation, which may be up to 25 years. For non-clinical research, we will retain your substantive personal data for a maximum of 5 years. We will retain your signed informed consent documents

Advertising cookies, device ID, demographic information such as gender and age, behavioral data such as page views, and sometimes other data.

To learn about your Internet interests and customize the ads we send you.

Our legitimate business interests in serving you with relevant advertising. We will obtain your consent for the deployment of cookies on our own websites.

We will retain this data for thirteen months from the date we collect it or until you opt out, whichever is earlier.

transfers of your data to other countries.Your personal information may be transferred to, stored, and processed in a country other than the one in which it was collected, including the United States. For example, we may store your data on a server in the United States because that is where a particular database is hosted; and that data may be transferred again when one of our marketers accesses that data from Switzerland to send you a product sample. We perform such transfers, both between P&G entities and between P&G and our service providers, using contractual protections that EU regulators have pre-approved to ensure your data is protected (known as model contract clauses). If you would like a copy of a transfer agreement,contact us.

plugins.Our websites may include plugins from other companies such as social networks. An example of a plugin is the Facebook Like button. These plugins may collect information (e.g., the url of the page you visited) and send it back to the company that created them. This may happen even if you do not click on the plugin. These plugins are governed by the privacy policy and terms of the company that created them, even though they appear on our sites. These plug-ins are non-essential cookies and will only work on our EU sites if you accept cookies.

logins.Our websites may allow you to log in using your account with another company such as, for example, Login with Facebook. When you do this, we will have access only to the information that you have given us consent to receive from your account settings in the other companys account youre using to log in with.

user content.Some of our sites and apps will allow you to upload your own content for contests, blogs, videos, and other functions. Please remember that any information you submit or post becomes public information. We do not have control over how others may use the content you submit to our sites and apps. We are not responsible for such uses in ways that may violate this privacy policy, the law, or your personal privacy and safety.

links.P&G sites may include links to other sites, which we do not control. Those sites will be governed by their own privacy policies and terms, not ours.

childrens online privacy laws.We follow all applicable data protection laws when collecting personal information online from children. For example, in the EU we do not collect personal information from children under 16 years of age unless we get consent from a parent. Similarly, in the U.S., we obtain verified parental consent when collecting personal information from children younger