Logan Paul – Help Me Help You (GARABATTO Remix

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Logan Paul – Help Me Help You ft. Why Dont We (GARABATTO Trap Remix)

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Help Me Help You (feat. Why Dont We) (GARABATTO Remix)

Help Me Help You (feat. Why Dont We) (GARABATTO Remix)

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Windows Fax and Scan Help

Original title: i am having problems installing my fax and scan options to my lexmark x5650.

i am trying to connect my windows fax and scan to my lexmark x5650. please help

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Follow the steps mentioned below to check whether the printer is listed in the devices and printer.

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Get Help With Your Utility Bills

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DOEE assists eligible low-income District households with energy costs associated with heating and cooling through the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). Eligible households may receive assistance towards their energy bill between $250 and $1,500 as a one-time regular energy assistance benefit. The regular energy assistance benefit is based on household size, total household income, heating source, and type of dwelling.

An emergency energy assistance benefit is available to low-income District residents who are currently disconnected from electric or gas service, or have a depleted supply of home heating oil.

ADVISORY:Appointments or online applications are required for District residents to apply for energy assistance with the DOEE.

District residents must apply for assistance by completing an online application (application TBA) or by calling 3-1-1 to schedule an in-person appointment.

If your energy service is disconnected: call 3-1-1 beginning September 18, 2017 for appointments taking place afterOctober 1, 2017.

If your energy service is not disconnected: call 3-1-1 beginning October 1, 2017 for appointments taking place after November 1, 2017.

Additionally, residents may apply for the Utility Discount Program in order to receive a reduced rate on their utility costs. To learn more, please visit theUtility Discount Program.

Emergency Assistance (your energy servicehas beendisconnected or home heating oil is depleted):

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Visit one of DOEEs Energy Centers (location details are found below)

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Call 311 to schedule an appointment at one of DOEEs Energy Centers (location details are found below)

Bring the following documents with you to receive energy assistance:

Your service disconnection notice or a letter from the utility company that states the service has been disconnected (if applicable);

Your most recent utility bills (or a copy);

Proof of income for everyone in your home who receives income; and

Social Security cards for everyone in your home.

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– If you disagree with DOEEs decision on your LIHEAP application, please seeyour appeal rights.

For more information, please contact the DOEE Energy Office by calling 311.

The District has banned the use of food service products made of expanded polystyrene.Read More

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My ex son in law served 6 tours in Iraq n has sever ptsd with a military disability and is also an alcoholic this past year he was upset with his son for being depressed and my grandson said he wanted to kill himself so his dad gave him an unloaded gun and said here kill yourself. Should the father own a gun with his alcoholism and PTSD

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Get Help With File Explorer In Windows 10

Get help with File Explorer in Windows 10:File Explorer in Windows 10 is different from thein the previous version of Windows Operating system. The

So if you are wonderingwhere is Windows Explorer in Windows 10then your question is answered.After all, File Explorer in Windows 10 is the major part of Windows 10 OS.

The Windows Explorer got a new name and some awesome cool features that we will cover in this guide.

Also Read:Fix Connections To Bluetooth Audio Devices And Wireless Displays In Windows 10

File Explorer in Windows 10has the functionality to manage and organize the files on your Windows 10 OS.

The data stored on your hard drive of your PC can only be accessed usingFile ExplorerWindows 10. So, lets learnhow to get help with file explorer in Windows 10.

The topics that we will cover in this guide are as follows:

Comparison between traditional Windows Explorer and the new File Explorer in Windows 10.

Keyword shortcuts for File Explorer in Windows 10.

How to customize File Explorer In Windows 10.

Windows 10 issues and fixes:File Explorer in Windows 10 not responding, File Explorer in Windows 10 not working and File Explorer in Windows 10 crashes problems.

All these points will lead you to learnhow you willget help with File Explorer in Windows 10. Lets get started

The traditional Windows Explorer opens in Windows 7 or some older operating system, its open with system drive.

However, in the new Windows File Explorer, it is by default asQuick Accessand it is a pretty good thing as you can configure Quick Access window with the folder that you use consistently, no matter where they are placed in drives.

The favourite menu in theWindows 10 File Explorerhas changed withQuick Accessmenu in the new File Explorer in Windows 10.

OneDrive(A cloud storage application) is added to the left pane inFile Explorer Windows 10and is not present in Windows 7 or any other operating system.

File Explorer for Windows 10 has got a flat lite look as compared to the old Windows Explorer.

The menus in File Explorer in Windows 10Home ShareVieware smartly integrated on the top with lot more options to choose from within, that is not present in the Windows Explorer.

If you want Windows to take you toMy PCand not theQuick Accessmenu when you open File Explorer. You can change it by clicking on:

File Change folder and search options Open File Explorer to This PC Ok.

There are many advantages ofFile Explorer in Windows 10but I have given a short and sweet description just to introduce you, now lets jump to the next point where we will learn about Keyword Shortcuts for File Explorer in Windows 10.

There are dozens of Keyword Shortcuts that are available in File Explorer on Windows 10, But here are some of the most useful shortcuts:

Launch File Explorer Windows 10 from anywhere in the Windows.

Go back one folder in your history.

Go up one folder in the folder tree.

Open a new File Explorer Windows 10.

Create a new folder in the current folder.

Ctrl + Mouse Wheel Up Or Mouse Wheel Down

Increase or decrease the size of icons and thumbnails.

These are some important Keyword Shortcuts. Now, Well jump to the next Point which is How tocustomize File Explorer in Windows 10.

In this stage, we will learn about How to Customize File Explorer inWindows 10. There are magnificent things about the new File Explorer in Windows 10and to customize them to our way is awesome. You all need to do this right? Lets start with this point.

File Explorer in Windows 10 customization is the very easy task to do, Lets see how to customize Quick Access. However, we all have folders and files that we access throughout our time on computer or laptop.

It is a great feature Quick Access makes it easy for you to add any number of folders and files from any location on your drives to Quick Access window. You can also remove the folders and files that you dont want to be showed on the Quick Access by just a one mouse button click.

If you want to pin any folder to the Quick Access window you have to just right click on the folder that youwant to pin

ClickPin To Quick Accessor if you want to remove already pinned folders you have to right click on the mouse and click onUnpin From Quick Accessthats it you are done with what you want.

One drive Windows 10 is a cloud storage application where you can store your files and folder directly from your computer or laptop and can access it from anywhere in the world.

However, Onedrive and Google drive is as same and work the same. Like, Google drive which is powered by Google and Onedrive is Powered by the Microsoft.

To use free Onedrive cloud storage application, you need tosign-up for the Microsoft Accounts.

Once you have sign-up for the Onedrive, you can use it as you want and access from anywhere and if you already have your Microsoft account you can directly sign-in to Onedrive.

Navigation Pane:If you want to customize your navigation pane, you can customize from the View tab on the top.

As you can see on the screen, there are lot more options to customize the File Explorer in Windows 10 as per your need.

You can pressF1 keyon your keyboard toget help with File Explorer in Windows 10. When you press F1 key new window will open with Bing search engine that shows website results are helpful for solving your doubts and queries. So, it is very easy toget help with File Explorer In Windows 10.

If you are facing issues like File Explorer Windows 10 not workingor File Explorer in Windows 10 crashes or File Explorer in Windows 10 not responding.

I have asolution for you to must try. I also faced the same issues. Before and after lots of investigation, I have come up with the solution that worked for me and will work for you as well.

In my case, there was an old software that causing this issue you just need to do three simple steps to overcome this issue.

Now what you need to do is start a software one by one and see ifWindows 10 File Explorer Is Crashingor not?

If after enabling a software File Explorer goes in Not Responding mode or crashes that mean the particular software within is having the issue.

If that particular software is not relevant for you or you are not using it then you just uninstall that software or you can uninstall and get the free copy from the internet or from somewhere of that software.

Recommended:How To Use Remote Desktop To Connect To A Windows 10 PC

I wish thisWindows 10 guidehelps you a lot to understand how toGet Help With File Explorer In Windows 10and made you familiar with the newWindows File Explorer. Hope this article is useful for you.

Thanks for visiting my site. And do share this article.

For any queries, please make comment in the comment section below.

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Windows 10 File Explorer Customization

How To Back Up Photos And Text Messages In Windows 10 Mobile?

How To Get Windows 10 Anniversary Update?

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Fix Connections To Bluetooth Audio Devices And Wireless Displays In Windows 10 Mobile

How Do I Sync My Settings In Windows 10 Using Microsoft Account?

I cant open a Lexar F: flash drive with a document. I need help with this.

What message or error do you get when you are trying to open the Flash Drive? Does it say it needs to be formatted? If Yes! then there are chances that your Flash Drive is corrupted and you may need to format it which in result will Wipe out all the data stored in the Flash Drive. Thanks

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Plase you made my e mail cone back that update are fault

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Please contact Yahoo support for your email issue. Make sure you are typing in the password correctly.

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How To Screenshot On Windows 10 Using

Remember Passwords In Microsoft Edge Browser

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How Hospital Gardens Help Patientseal

(examples: physics, climate change, etc.)

Hospital gardens turn out to have medical benefits

To get an inkling of what a well-designed hospital garden can mean to a seriously ill child, watch the home video posted on YouTube last August of Aidan Schwalbe, a three-year-old heart-transplant recipient. The toddler is shown exploring the meandering paths, sun-dappled lawn and gnarled roots of a branching shade tree in the Prouty Garden at Childrens Hospital Boston. He loves to be out in the garden feeding the birds and squirrels, wrote Aidans grandmother in an August blog entry. They will all weigh 30 lbs. each by the time we leave here!

The garden that Aidan loveswith its vibrant greenery, shaded places to sit and walk, and small, half-hidden animal sculptures that fascinate visitors of all agesis one of the most successful hospital gardens in the country, says Clare Cooper Marcus, an emeritus professor in landscape architecture at the University of California, Berkeley.

Dismissed as peripheral to medical treatment for much of the 20th century, gardens are back in style, now featured in the design of most new hospitals, according to the American Society of Landscape Architects. In a recent survey of 100 directors and architects of assisted-living residences, 82 percent agreed that the design of outdoor space should be one of the most important considerations in the design. But can gardens, in fact, promote healing? It turns out that they often can. Scientists around the world are now digging into the data to find out which features of gardens account for the effect.

The notion that the fresh breezes, dappled sunlight and fragrant greenery of a garden can be good for what ails us has its roots in ancient tradition and common sense. But a much cited study, published in 1984 in the journalScienceby environmental psychologist Roger Ulrich, now at Texas A&M University, was the first to use the standards of modern medical researchstrict experimental controls and quantified health outcomesto demonstrate that gazing at a garden can sometimes speed healing from surgery, infections and other ailments.

Ulrich and his team reviewed the medical records of people recovering from gallbladder surgery at a suburban Pennsylvania hospital. All other things being equal, patients with bedside windows looking out on leafy trees healed, on average, a day faster, needed significantly less pain medication and had fewer postsurgical complications than patients who instead saw a brick wall.

Esther Sternberg, a physician and neuroimmunologist at the National Institute of Mental Health, calls Ulrichs work groundbreaking. At the time, studies showing that loud sounds, disrupted sleep and other chronic stressors can have serious physical consequences were only just beginning. In 1984 we all took it for granted that hospitals were noisy, smelly, disorienting mazes, says Sternberg, who details the history in her bookHealing Spaces: The Science of Place and Well-Being. But it hadnt occurred to us that stress could affect a patients healingor that we could do anything about that.

Fortunately, as the evidence implicating hospitals as major engines of stress builds, the stack of data suggesting that gardens and planted alcoves can encourage healing has grown, too. Just three to five minutes spent looking at views dominated by trees, flowers or water can begin to reduce anger, anxiety and pain and to induce relaxation, according to various studies of healthy people that measured physiological changes in blood pressure, muscle tension, or heart and brain electrical activity.

Indeed, the benefits of seeing and being in nature are so powerful that even pictures of landscapes can soothe. In 1993 Ulrich and his colleagues at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden randomly assigned 160 heart surgery patients in the intensive care unit to one of six conditions: simulated window views of a large nature photograph (an open, tree-lined stream or a shadowy forest scene); one of two abstract paintings; a white panel; or a blank wall. Surveys afterward confirmed that patients assigned the water and tree scene were less anxious and needed fewer doses of strong pain medicine than those who looked at the darker forest photograph, abstract art or no pictures at all.

Lets be clear, Cooper Marcus says. Spending time interacting with nature in a well-designed garden wont cure your cancer or heal a badly burned leg. But there is good evidence it can reduce your levels of pain and stressand, by doing that, boost your immune system in ways that allow your own body and other treatments to help you heal.

Still, research shows that not all gardens are equally effective. In 1995 Cooper Marcus and landscape architect Marni Barnes received a grant from the nonprofit Center for Health Design to analyze the physical layout and daily use of several hospital gardens in northern California. In 32 hours of observations, which included taking detailed notes and interviewing users (who collectively made 2,140 visits), the researchers noticed several patterns that have been borne out in subsequent studies of other sites.

Among their findings: users mostly visited gardens seeking relaxation and restoration from mental and emotional fatigue. Tree-bordered vistas of fountains or other water features, along with lush, multilayered greenery of mature trees and flowering plants, appealed most. Those results are consistent with Ulrichs findings of the healing power of a window view and also correspond with the theories of evolutionary biologists that people prefer views that are reminiscent of the savannas where humans evolved. Throughout human history, trees and water have signaled an oasis, and flowering plants have been a sign of possible food. Open views deter surprises by predators, and shaded alcoves offer a safe retreat.

The more greenery versus hard surfaces, the better. We found that a ratio of at least 7:3 seems to work best, Cooper Marcus says. Less greenery signals a plaza or shopping mall courtyard and is not as relaxing.

What you can do in the garden is as important as what you see. The results of behavioral maps tracking visitors actions while in a garden suggested a need for private conversation areas; smooth, tree-lined paths that invite strolls but that will not trip wheelchairs or intravenous poles; lightweight furniture that can be tugged into the shade or sun; and naturalistic landscaping that lures birds, squirrels and other wildlife.

One finding, in particular, surprised Cooper Marcus and Barnes. Stressed hospital employees accounted for as many visits to hospital gardens as stressed patients, and interviews confirmed that staffers depend on the greenery. I feel like one of the Mole People, an employee who works in the basement radiology department of a Berkeley, Calif., hospital told the researchers. She said she comes to sit amid the trees of the rooftop garden daily to relax and meditate. Its a big mental, emotional lift.

Different generations seem to value the same things in gardens, but research has turned up differences, too. In 2005 clinical psychologist Sandra A. Sherman and her colleagues conducted a study of three gardens at a childrens cancer center in San Diego to try to figure out what worked and what did not. Some of the findings made intuitive sense. A mosaic turtle sculpture that small children could climb, for example, was more alluring than a crane sculpture the kids could only look at. Other results were less obvious. A riverlike water feature where kids and parents could splash and float boats together was twice as popular with the kids as a child-size playhouse that adults could not enter.

Focusing on the other end of the age spectrum, Susan Rodiek of Texas A&M has looked at long-term care institutions. In her studies, published in 2009, of a random sampling of 68 assisted-living facilities, Rodiek talked to 1,100 residents and 430 employees. Older people, she found, need and benefit from outdoor space and greenery just as much as the young.

But the adults desire some different features. Middle-aged adults, for example, tend to look for peace and quiet in the garden, and older adults are more likely to seek stimulation. At one new senior residence Rodiek studied, the facilitys architect had created a lovely, secluded lawn and pond at the back of the apartment building. But every afternoon, the researchers noticed, at around the same time, the elderly residents dragged their lightweight aluminum chairs to the front of the building to be part of the community of commuters passing by. You can only watch a pond for so long, Rodiek says. And a grass lawn doesnt change much.

To help ensure that outdoor areas promote as much healing as possible, Rodiek has recently created a checklist, drawing on the evidence described above, that administrators of long-term care facilities and others can use to evaluate their garden design. And she is working on one geared specifically to hospitals so that hospital-accrediting agencies can set standards.

Codified standards are needed because therapeutic gardens are becoming so popular. New hospitals are now competing on the basis of whether they have a healing garden or not, Cooper Marcus says. But when you go to look, some are not much more than a rooftop with a chaise lounge and a few potted plants. Designing a good garden for health care settings isnt rocket science, she adds. Yet basing the design on good science instead of whim will strengthen the healing nature of nature.

The following checklist, based on research, shows what works:

Lush, layered landscapes with shade trees, flowers and shrubs at various heights should take up roughly 70 percent of the space; concrete walkways and plazas about 30 percent.

Abstract sculptures do not soothe people who are sick or worried.

Mature trees that draw birds and chairs that can be moved to facilitate private conversation foster greater interaction.

Gardens that can be seen, touched, smelled and listened to soothe best. But avoid strongly fragrant flowers or other odors for patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Wide, meandering paths that are tinted to reduce glare allow patients with low eyesight, wheelchairs or walkers to get close to nature. Paving seams must be narrower than one eighth of an inch to prevent trips by patients trailing wheeled IV poles.

Fountains that sound like dripping faucets, buzzing helicopters or urinals do not relax anyone, and neither does the strong smell of algae.

Gardens should not be far away or behind doors that are too heavy for a frail or elderly person to open.

This article was published in print as Nature That Nurtures.

Deborah Franklin is based in San Francisco and has reported on science and medicine for National Public Radio, the

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Top Trump Organization executive asked Pun aide for helobusiness deal

Top Trump Organization executive asked Putin aide for help on business deal

The Washington Posts Carol Leonnig and Tom Hamburger explain the Trump Organizations efforts to build a Trump Tower in Moscow. (Jenny Starrs,Meg Kelly/The Washington Post)

A top executive from Donald Trumps real estate company emailed Russian President Vladi­mir Putins personal spokesman during the U.S. presidential campaign last year to ask for help advancinga stalled Trump Tower development project in Moscow, according to documents submitted to Congress on Monday.

The request came in a mid-January 2016 email from Michael Cohen, one of Trumps closest business advisers, who asked longtime Putin lieutenant Dmitry Peskov for assistance in reviving a deal that Cohen suggested was languishing.

Over the past few months I have been working with a company based in Russia regarding the development of a Trump Tower-Moscow project in Moscow City, Cohen wrote to Peskov, according to a person familiar with the email. Without getting into lengthy specifics, the communication between our two sides has stalled.

As this project is too important, I am hereby requesting your assistance. I respectfully request someone, preferably you, contact me so that I might discuss the specifics as well as arranging meetings with the appropriate individuals. I thank you in advance for your assistance and look forward to hearing from you soon, Cohen wrote.

Cohens email marks the most direct outreach documented by a top Trump aide to a similarly senior member of Putins government.

Cohen told congressional investigators in a statement Monday that he did not recall receiving a response from Peskov or having further contact with Russian government officials about the project. The email, addressed to Peskov, appeared to have been sent to a general Kremlin press account.

The note adds to the list of contacts between Trump associates and Russian officials that have been a focus of multiple congressional inquiries as well as an investigation led by special counsel Robert S. Mueller III exploring Russian interference in the 2016 election. U.S. intelligence agencies have concluded that the Kremlin intervened to help elect Trump.

Cohens email to Peskov provides an example of a Trump business official directly seeking Kremlin assistance in advancing Trumps business interests.

Cohen told congressional investigators that the deal was envisioned as a licensing project, in which Trump would have been paid for the use of his name by a Moscow-based developer called I.C. Expert Investment Co.

Cohen said that he discussed the deal three times with Trump and that Trump signed a letter of intent with the company on Oct. 28, 2015. He said the Trump company began to solicit designs from architects and discuss financing.

However, he said that the project was abandoned for business reasons when government permission was not secured and that the matter was not related in any way to Mr. Trumps presidential campaign.

Cohens request to Peskov came as Trump was distinguishing himself on the campaign trail with his warm rhetoric about Putin.

Cohen said in his statement to Congress that he wrote the email at the recommendation ofFelix Sater, a Russian American businessmanwho was serving as a broker on the deal.

In the statement, obtained by The Washington Post, Cohen said Sater suggested the outreach because a massive Trump development in Moscow would require Russian government approval.

White House special counsel Ty Cobb said Trump knew nothing about Cohens effort to enlist Pes­kovs help.

The mere fact that there was no apparent response suggests this is a non-collusion story, he said.

Cohen has been one of Trumps closest aides since 2007, serving as a business emissary, lawyer and sometimes spokesman for Trump. Friends said Trump has treated Cohen like a member of his family.

Cohen, who was executive vice president of the Trump Organization, did not have a formal role in Trumps campaign. But he spoke with reporters as a defender of Trump and appeared on television as a surrogate for the candidate. He left the company shortly before Trump was inaugurated as president, and, since January, has served as one of Trumps personal lawyers.

In a statement to The Post, Cohen described the potential Moscow project as simply one of many development opportunities that the Trump Organization considered and ultimately rejected.

It should come as no surprise that, over four decades, the Trump Organization has received and reviewed countless real estate development opportunities, both domestic and international, he added.

Cohen said he abandoned the project because he lost confidence that the Moscow developer would be able to obtain land, financing and government approvals. It was a building proposal that did not succeed, and nothing more, he said.

The Post reported Sunday that Cohen had been in negotiations with Sater and foreign investors to build a Trump Tower in the Russian capital from September 2015 through the end of January 2016, at the same time Trump was campaigning for president. Trump entered the race in June 2015, and by January 2016 he was leading in the polls for the Republican nomination.

Cohen told congressional investigators that Sater constantly pushed him to travel to Moscow as part of the negotiations, but that he declined to do so.

He said that Sater, who has attempted to broker Trump deals for more than a decade, was prone to salesmanship,  and that, as a result, he did not routinely apprise others in the company about their interactions and never considered asking Trump to go to Moscow, as Sater had requested.

Sater said in a statement Monday that he brought the idea of the largest tower in Russia to Cohen, his longtime friend. Despite Saters enthusiasm for the plan, he said, the Trump Organization abandoned it.

Michael Cohen was the only member of the Trump Organization who I communicated with on this project, Sater said.

Over email, Sater bragged to Cohen that he could get Putin to assist with the project and that it would help Trumps presidential campaign, according to correspondence submitted to congressional investigators.

Our boy can become president of the USA and we can engineer it, Sater wrote in a November 2015 email. I will get all of Putins team to buy in on this, I will manage this process.

The Post on Sunday first reported on the existence of the emails, copies of which were published Monday by the New York Times.

In another email published by the Times, and confirmed by The Post, Sater described accompanying Trumps daughter Ivanka Trump on a 2006 trip to Moscow. I arranged for Ivanka to sit in Putins private chair at his desk and office in the Kremlin, Sater wrote.

Ivanka Trump said she had taken a brief tour of the Kremlin but did not recall sitting in Putins chair.

She added, I was not part of Michael Cohens discussions surrounding a potential Trump project that he was evaluating in 2015 in Russia with the exception of recommending architects to consider as part of the routine design process for any potential deal.

Donald Trump has tried to distance himself from Sater, a New York developer whose office was located in Trump Tower and who helped broker licensed Trump deals. Sater had served time in jail in the 1990s after a bar fight and pleaded guilty in 1998 to his role in Mafia-linked stock fraud. Federal officials have said he then cooperated on various national security and criminal investigations.

In writing to Peskov, Cohen was reaching out to a Kremlin official considered one of the main gatekeepers to Putin.

Peskov was appointed the head of the presidential press service in 2000, during Putins first term, and has served as a spokesman for Putin in various roles since, staying with Putin during his four years as prime minister. Because he regularly travels with and speaks to Putin, he is a target for lobbyists and petitioners trying to attract the Russian presidents attention.

Aside from being the Kremlins mouthpiece, hes definitely someone who is viewed as a senior lieutenant, an important oligarch in Putins power system, said Steven L. Hall, who retired from the CIA in 2015 after 30 years of managing the agencys Russia operations. If youre looking for someone who is close to Putin, Dmitry Peskov is as good as any of them.

Asked for comment about the Trump Tower negotiations, Amanda Miller, a spokeswoman for the Trump Organization, emphasized Monday that Cohen did not pursue the deal beyond its initial stages. After the signing of a non-binding letter of intent . . . it was not significantly advanced (i.e., there was no site, no financing, and no development), she wrote in an email to The Post. To be clear, the Trump Organization has never had any real estate holdings or interests in Russia.

Still, Trump repeatedly tried for three decades to build in Russia. In 2013, he signed a preliminary agreement to build a tower in partnership with Aras Agalarov, a billionaire who had financed the Trump-owned Miss Universe pageant when it was held in Moscow in 2013. Agalarov told The Post last year that his companys deal with Trump was on hold because of the presidential campaign.

A representative of Agalarovs company attended a June 2016 meeting with top Trump aides and a Russian lawyer organized by Donald Trump Jr., after he was told that the lawyer would provide damaging information about Democratic rival Hillary Clinton provided by the Russian government.

Scott Balber, an attorney for Agalarov, said Agalarov and his company played no role in the 2015-16 Trump Tower proposal.

Andrew Roth in Moscow contributed to this report.

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Selection 101

GT Models use a new naming system. The new system was introduced to permit an easier identification of the turbos characteristics.

New models can have up to 10 digits, that specify its range, measurement of the compressor wheels and the rest of the turbos characteristics. The old naming system is obsolete.

Range denomination ( based on the size of the turbine wheels and the turbine housing)

Corresponds to the diameter of the compressor wheel in mm ( In the event that the wheel is bigger than 100mm only the last two figures are used )

These are used to designate the specific characteristics of each model, according to the following table:

Variable nozzle turbochargers (VAT)

Variable nozzle turbochargers (VNT OP)

A double hole in the turbine housing bypass

Adapter integrated into the turbine housing

A single hole in the turbine housing bypass

Manifold elbow and turbine housing integrated

Variable nozzle turbochargers (VNT)

Manifold and turbine housing integrated

Click for Complete Master List of Garrett Turbos

What is an A/R ratio and how is it calculated?:

The A/R in a relationship that is obtained when dividing the interior area of the turbine where the inner walls are found, through the turbine housing radio from the center to the tongue as the illustration indicates.

A/R values are expressed as .35, .47, .68, .84, 1.00, 1.15, etc.

A small A/R indicates a small interior volume in the small turbine and a large A/R indicates a greater volume.

At a minimum A/R the motors response is produced at small revolutions per minute but at high revolutions we will not achieve an adequate caudal. We should always find a compromise between achieving the lowest response possible and have enough caudal at high revolutions. The picture below is for reference:

What is the Trim of a turbo and how is it calculated?

Each turbine wheel y compressor wheel model generally have the same turbine diameter (highest diameter), but different steps (lowest diameter). Each type of step (trim), has different blowing characteristics.

TRIM values are expressed as 45, 50, 55, etc… and can only go from 0 to 100. A value of 100 means Dp = Dg

A large TRIM indicates a large turbine diameter.

A TRIM of 55, gives 10% more caudal than a TRIM of 50.

TRIM is used in the same way for turbine wheels as for compressor wheels.

TRIM is calculated through the following formula.

What are the different flanges and what are the sizes?

All most all of your turbo head units come with the flanges described below. The T3 housing is the smallest and flows the least, with the T6/Thumper flange being the biggest and flowing the most. The flange plays a role in spool up, backpressure…etc. The rule of thumb here is use the largest flange you can possibly fit. Of course this will be limited by what headers you use, since most are pre-fabbed and come with a flange already, and under hood space will also be a limitation.

Selecting a Turbo for your Engine 101

Below we will explain what is needed to select a turbo and how to do it using a theoretical setup. Not all details are covered since their are millions of different configurations, such as cam selection, head selection…etc. Keep in mind the internal combustion engine is still nothing more then mechanical air pump. So these calculations will get you VERY close to what you will need. They will also teach you how to read a compressor map as well as understand the physics of choosing a turbo.

Now taking 2 compressor maps we can compare what would be a good turbo to use for this motor. We will just randomly take 3 turbos that would be a popular choice for this engine combination. A T66, T76 and T88.

Now you can take some reference points from the above air consumption chart and see where the engine would fall in the efficiency of the turbo.

4000rpms at 10psi, would give you a PR of 1.68, and the engine would consume 45 lbs/min of air. Now looking at the compressor maps above for reference.

T88 = 74% efficiency, but very close to the surge limit

5500 rpms at 14psi, would give you a PR of 1.95, and the engine would consume 72 lbs/min of air. Now looking at the compressor maps above for reference.

T66 = Into the Choke line, which is the max volume flow the inlet can reach for the turbo. Beyond this is what you se see above of the compressor maps denoted by a steep descend in the compressor speed lines.

6500 rpms at 19psi, would give you a PR of 2.29, and the engine would consume 99 lbs/min of air. Now looking at the compressor maps above for reference.

T66 = Flow would be beyond what the 66 could achieve.

T76 = Flow would be beyond what the 76 could achieve.

Now you can see from above how a turbo selection can greatly effect your setup depending on your wants for the setup. Below I have linked several charts for some combos that are used quite often. Remember though this is just a map to get you going in the right direction. Parameters like large frame and small frame are not put into the function, nor is the flange type. For any added help in your selection

. To make it easier for some click on the links below to pull the chart up and being with your selection process. You can cross-reference the consumption charts with our

If you wish to have a chart added for your configuration/engine please e-mail us.

Duration is critical to a turbo setup since its probably the single most important event of a turbo motor (i.e. time valve sits open and closed). Since the air is being forced instead of drawn into and out of the combustion chamber, duration will be your largest variable on how that incoming/outgoing air is managed.

Duration when using a manifold or log design on most turbo cams is usually about 6 degrees more intake duration than exhaust duration (226/220, 240/234). This is mainly because a manifold/log design will typically see higher then a 2:1 pressure ratio in the exhaust ( as high as 4:1 with some logs). By using a reverse split duration this will somewhat help prevent from getting exhaust gas reversion.

Duration when using an efficient header setup with most turbo cams will usually be (230/230, 224/224) or better known as a dual pattern cam. The thinking is with the exhaust backpressure being only 2:1 you can leave the exhaust valve open a little longer then if the exhaust backpressure was 3:1 or higher. Also some of the new turbo designs produce a much lower backpressure with the advent of better flowing turbine wheels and housings which further decrease the total amount of backpressure created by the system.

Overlap definition, is the time period when both the exhaust valve and the intake valve are open at the same time. The exhaust valve needs to stay open after the piston passes TDC in order to use the vacuum created of the exiting exhaust gases to maximize the amount of exhaust gas drawn out of the cylinder. The intake valve opens before TDC in order to use the vacuum created by the exiting exhaust gases to start drawing the intake charge into the cylinder.

This sequence of events above are controlled by the duration and LS (Lobe separation) of the cam. On a typical N/A motor this is essential since you have no pressure being developed on the intake side to push the charge into the combustion chamber. The problem with this event is a turbocharged motor will create a larger amount of backpressure on the exhaust side. Due to this event the above definition will not apply. Reason being is, when

the intake valve opens at BTDC, the burned gasses in the chamber will exit out the intake since the pressure is lower than the exhaust. Since this is true you would not want to open the intake valve until the piston has started going down, ATDC. This will lower the combustion chamber pressure till its below the intake manifold pressure.

Add the intake and exhaust durations

Add the intake and exhaust durations

Above was the process on how to calculate your cams overlap. As you can see, the overlap in the 2 cams differ greatly. Running the N/A cam example on a manifold setup would be a horribly in-efficient setup and the engine would be operating well below its potential output. While running the example turbo cam would work well even with the most in-efficient of the header systems out there.

Typically a overlap spread of -8 degrees to +2 is a safe bet. Of course this will differ with whatever combination header, turbo and exhaust is used, so those s could be higher or lower.

How much lift should I get in my cam? Well that will depend on your heads flow characteristics. To choose the correct turbo camshaft, you really need to know how your cylinder heads flow. Reason is if your cylinder head flows X amount of air at X amount of lift, choosing a cam that has a lift much greater then that will gain you nothing except extra heat and premature wear of the valve spring. Airflow through a head reaches a peak as the valve is opened, then starts to drop off as the valve is lifted beyond that peak. Most of this of this will hold true to definition, but with a forced induction motor, valve lift is not as critical since the incoming air is pressurized.

So be the definition above if your head flows best at 0.500 of lift, use a cam that will lift the valve between 0.600 and 0.625. The reasoning behind this is, if you lift the valve only to its peak flow point, then the valve only flows best when its wide open. The cycle is brief and would only happen once per stroke. So to benefit from you peak flow the most, you want to lift the valve past its peak. That way the valve will pass its peak flow twice in the cycle. The result is more flow during the opening and closing event of the valve. You do not want to raise the valve much past the peak flow though, or you lose total flow by going too high.

There are way too many factors to just say XX cam will make XX power with your combo. Things like 114LS is best, or 117LS, or ..etc, are just blanket statements. Backpressure, RPM range, boost level, target horsepower, A/R of turbo, turbo frame (T3, T4, T6/Thumper), head flow, cubic inches, and even location of turbo…etc. All of these factors are extremely important in determining the cam that best suits your needs. There is no rule of thumb with a turbo cam. There are too many variables and the only way to get the right cam is to take all of those your parameters into consideration, and only then can a proper cam be selected. All of the points of reference above are just to get you on your way to building the best and most powerful turbo system for you. Study your design and ask questions along the way and you will be smiling the next time your opponent lines up next to you. Feel free to

for your needs. Also once you have read this and want to know the theory behind turbo charging, check out our

advanced look at the engineering behind turbochargers

WebMath

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Webmath is a math-help web site that generates answers to specific math questions and problems, as entered by a user, at any particular moment. The math answers are generated and displayed real-time, at the moment a web user types in their math problem and clicks solve. In addition to the answers, Webmath also shows the student how to arrive at the answer.