Steve Jobs

() was the Chairman and CEO ofApple Inc., a company he founded withSteve Wozniakin 1976. He was also the CEO ofPixarAnimation Studios until it was acquired by the Walt Disney Company in 2007. Jobs was the Walt Disney Companys largest individualshareholderand a former member of its Board of Directors. He is considered to have been a leading figure in both the computer and entertainment industries.

Address at Stanford University (2005)

Were gambling on ourvision, and we would rather do that than make me too products.

I would trade all of mytechnologyfor an afternoon withSocrates.

The worlds clearly a better place. Individuals can now do things that only large groups of people with lots of money could do before. What that means is, we have much more opportunity for people to get to the marketplace not just the marketplace of commerce but the marketplace of ideas. The marketplace of publications, the marketplace of public policy. You name it. Weve given individuals and small groups equally powerful tools to what the largest, most heavily funded organizations in the world have. And that trend is going to continue. You can buy for under $10,000 today a computer that is just as powerful, basically, as one anyone in the world can get their hands on. ~ Steve Jobs

People say sometimes, You work in the fastest-moving industry in the world. I dont feel that way. I think I work in one of the slowest. It seems to take forever to get anything done. All of the graphical-user interface stuff that we did with the Macintosh was pioneered at Xerox PARC [the companys legendary Palo Alto Research Center] and with Doug Engelbart at SRI [a future-oriented think tank at Stanford] in the mid-70s. And here we are, just about the mid-90s, and its kind of commonplace now. But its about a 10-to-20-year lag. Thats a long time. ~ Steve Jobs

Computers are actually pretty simple. Were sitting here on a bench in this cafe [for this part of the Interview]. Lets assume that you understood only the most rudimentary of directions and you asked how to find the rest room. I would have to describe it to you in very specific and precise instructions. I might say, Scoot sideways two meters off the bench. Stand erect. Lift left foot. Bend left knee until it is horizontal. Extend left foot and shift weight 300 centimeters forward and on and on. If you could interpret all those instructions 100 times faster than any other person in this cafe, you would appear to be a magician: You could run over and grab a milk shake and bring it back and set it on the table and snap your fingers, and Id think you made the milk shake appear, because it was so fast relative to my perception. Thats exactly what a computer does. It takes these very, very simple-minded instructionsGo fetch a number, add it to this number, put the result there, perceive if its greater than this other numberbut executes them at a rate of, lets say, 1,000,000 per second. At 1,000,000 per second, the results appear to be magic. ~ Steve Jobs

In the future, it wont be an act of faith. The hard part of what were up against now is that people ask you about specifics and you cant tell them. A hundred years ago, if somebody had askedAlexander Graham Bell, What are you going to be able to do with a telephone? he wouldnt have been able to tell him the ways the telephone would affect the world. He didnt know that people would use the telephone to call up and find out what movies were playing that night or to order some groceries or call a relative on the other side of the globe. But remember that first the public telegraph was inaugurated, in 1844. It was an amazing breakthrough in communications. You could actually send messages from New York to San Francisco in an afternoon. People talked about putting a telegraph on every desk in America to improve productivity. But it wouldnt have worked. It required that people learn this whole sequence of strange incantations, Morse code, dots and dashes, to use the telegraph. It took about 40 hours to learn. The majority of people would never learn how to use it. So, fortunately, in the 1870s, Bell filed the patents for the telephone. It performed basically the same function as the telegraph, but people already knew how to use it. Also, the neatest thing about it was that besides allowing you to communicate with just words, it allowed you to sing. ~ Steve Jobs

As a kid, I read an article in the Scientific American. It measured the efficiency of locomotion of various species on the planet. Bears. Chimpanzees. Raccoons. Birds. Fish. How many kilo-calories per kilometer did they spend to move? Humans were measured too. And the condor won. It was the most efficient. Humankind came in with an unimpressive showing about a third of the way down the list. But somebody there had the brilliance to test a human riding a bicycle. We blew away the condor. Off the charts.

This really had an impact on me. Humans are tool builders. We build tools that can dramatically amplify our innate human abilities. We ran an ad for this once that the personal computer is the bicycle of the mind. I believe that with every bone in my body. ~ Steve Jobs

Part of what made the Macintosh great was that the people working on it were musicians, poets, and artists, and zoologists, and historians. They also happened to be the best computer scientists in the world. But if it hadnt been computer science, these people would have been doing amazing things in other fields. We all brought to this a sort of liberal arts air, an attitude that we wanted to pull the best that we saw into this field. You dont get that if you are very narrow. ~ Steve Jobs

Keynote address at Apples annual sales conference first introducing theMacintosh 1984 commercial, which ends with the announcer saying On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And youll see why 1984 wont be like

Were gambling on our vision, and we would rather do that than make me too products. Let some other companies do that. For us, its always the next dream.

Interview about the release of the Macintosh (24 January 1984) -(online video)

Its rare that you see an artist in his 30s or 40s able to really contribute something amazing.

The Japanese have hit the shores like dead fish. Theyre just like dead fish washing up on the shores.

: Computers are actually pretty simple. Were sitting here on a bench in this cafe [for this part of the Interview]. Lets assume that you understood only the most rudimentary of directions and you asked how to find the rest room. I would have to describe it to you in very specific and precise instructions. I might say, Scoot sideways two meters off the bench. Stand erect. Lift left foot. Bend left knee until it is horizontal. Extend left foot and shift weight 300 centimeters forward and on and on. If you could interpret all those instructions 100 times faster than any other person in this cafe, you would appear to be a magician: You could run over and grab a milk shake and bring it back and set it on the table and snap your fingers, and Id think you made the milk shake appear, because it was so fast relative to my perception. Thats exactly what a computer does. It takes these very, very simple-minded instructionsGo fetch a number, add it to this number, put the result there, perceive if its greater than this other numberbut executes them at a rate of, lets say, 1,000,000 per second. At 1,000,000 per second, the results appear to be magic.

: Most people have no concept of how an automatic transmission works, yet they know how to drive a car. You dont have to study physics to understand the laws of motion to drive a car. You dont have to understand any of this stuff to use Macintosh.

, Feb 1985, by Philip Elmer-Dewitt,Steve-Jobs The Playboy Interview,

: Then for now, arent you asking home-computer buyers to invest $3000 in what is essentially an act of faith?

: In the future, it wont be an act of faith. The hard part of what were up against now is that people ask you about specifics and you cant tell them. A hundred years ago, if somebody had asked Alexander Graham Bell, What are you going to be able to do with a telephone? he wouldnt have been able to tell him the ways the telephone would affect the world. He didnt know that people would use the telephone to call up and find out what movies were playing that night or to order some groceries or call a relative on the other side of the globe. But remember that first the public telegraph was inaugurated, in 1844. It was an amazing breakthrough in communications. You could actually send messages from New York to San Francisco in an afternoon. People talked about putting a telegraph on every desk in America to improve productivity. But it wouldnt have worked. It required that people learn this whole sequence of strange incantations, Morse code, dots and dashes, to use the telegraph. It took about 40 hours to learn. The majority of people would never learn how to use it. So, fortunately, in the 1870s, Bell filed the patents for the telephone. It performed basically the same function as the telegraph, but people already knew how to use it. Also, the neatest thing about it was that besides allowing you to communicate with just words, it allowed you to sing.

: It allowed you to intone your words with meaning beyond the simple linguistics. And were in the same situation today. Some people are saying that we ought to put an IBM PC on every desk in America to improve productivity. It wont work. The special incantations you have to learn this time are slash q-zs and things like that. The manual for WordStar, the most popular word-processing program, is 400 pages thick. To write a novel, you have to read a novelone that reads like a mystery to most people. Theyre not going to learn slash q-z any more than theyre going to learn Morse code. That is what Macintosh is all about. Its the first telephone of our industry. And, besides that, the neatest thing about it, to me, is that the Macintosh lets you sing the way the telephone did. You dont simply communicate words, you have special print styles and the ability to draw and add pictures to express yourself.

, Feb 1985, as quoted inSteve Jobs Imagines Nationwide Internet in 1985 Interview, Matt Novak, 12/15/14 2:20pm

: Let me compare it with IBM. How come the Mac group produced Mac and the people at IBM produced the PCjr? We think the Mac will sell zillions, but we didnt build Mac for anybody else. We built it for ourselves. We were the group of people who were going to judge whether it was great or not. We werent going to go out and do market research. We just wanted to build the best thing we could build. When youre a carpenter making a beautiful chest of drawers, youre not going to use a piece of plywood on the back, even though it faces the wall and nobody will ever see it. Youll know its there, so youre going to use a beautiful piece of wood on the back. For you to sleep well at night, the aesthetic, the quality, has to be carried all the way through.

: Are you saying that the people who made the PCjr dont have that kind of pride in the product?

: If they did, they wouldnt have turned out the PCjr.

It is hard to think that a $2 billion company with 4,300-plus people couldnt compete with six people in blue jeans.

On Appleslawsuitagainst him, following his resignation to formNeXT, as quoted in

An old saying at Apple Computer, attributed to Steve Jobs, meaning that it is important to actually deliver.[1]

Theyre babes in the woods. I think I can help turn Alvy and Ed into businessmen.

OnPixarco-foundersAlvy Ray SmithandEdwin Catmull, as quoted in

If, for some reason, we make some big mistake and IBM wins, my personal feeling is that we are going to enter a computer Dark Ages for about twenty years.

On the early rivalry between Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers based on MicrosoftsDOS, as quoted in

Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward

I feel like somebody just punched me in the stomach and knocked all my wind out. Im only 30 years old and I want to have a chance to continue creating things. I know Ive got at least one more great computer in me. And Apple is not going to give me a chance to do that.

On his expulsion from any position of authority at Apple, after having invitedJohn Sculleyto become CEO, as quoted in

Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water or do you want a chance to change the world?

A comment he made in persuadingJohn Sculleyto become Apples CEO, as quoted in

Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple: A Journey of Adventure, Ideas, and the Future

(1987) by John Sculley and John A. Byrne

Its more fun to be a pirate than to join the Navy.

At a retreat in September 1982, as quoted inJohn Sculleyand John A. Byrne,

Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple A Journey of Adventure, Ideas, and the Future

Why join the Navy . . . if you can be a pirate?

Young Guns: The Fearless Entrepreneurs Guide to Chasing Your Dreams and Breaking Out on Your Own

Wozand I very much likedBob Dylans poetry, and we spent a lot of time thinking about a lot of that stuff.

This was California. You could getLSDfresh made from Stanford. You could sleep on the beach at night with your girlfriend.

California has a sense of experimentation and a sense of opennessopenness to new possibilities.

Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.

Steve Jobs, the Journey Is the Reward

You cant just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. By the time you get it built, theyll want something new.

Interview with Inc. Magazine for its The Entrepreneur of the Decade Award (1 April 1989)

On the firstNeXTComputer, as quoted in

What a computer is to me is its the most remarkable tool that we have ever come up with. Its the equivalent of a bicycle for our minds.

Memory and Imagination: New Pathways to the Library of Congress

(1991); this has sometimes been paraphrased Computers are like a bicycle for our minds.

My opinion is that the only two computer companies that are software-driven are Apple andNeXT, and I wonder about Apple.

Being the richest man in the cemetery doesnt matter to me Going to bed at night saying weve done something wonderful… thats what matters to me.

On the success ofBill Gatesand Microsoft, as quoted in

The Wall Street Journal (Summer 1993)

Unfortunately, people are not rebelling against Microsoft. They dont know any better.

: Its been 10 years since the Macintosh was introduced. When you look around at the technological landscape today, whats most surprising to you?

: People say sometimes, You work in the fastest-moving industry in the world. I dont feel that way. I think I work in one of the slowest. It seems to take forever to get anything done. All of the graphical-user interface stuff that we did with the Macintosh was pioneered at Xerox PARC [the companys legendary Palo Alto Research Center] and with Doug Engelbart at SRI [a future-oriented think tank at Stanford] in the mid-70s. And here we are, just about the mid-90s, and its kind of commonplace now. But its about a 10-to-20-year lag. Thats a long time.

: Nevertheless, youve often talked about how technology can empower people, how it can change their lives. Do you still have as much faith in technology today as you did when you started out 20 years ago?

: Oh, sure. Its not a faith in technology. Its faith in people.

: Technology is nothing. Whats important is that you have a faith in people, that theyre basically good and smart, and if you give them tools, theyll do wonderful things with them. Its not the tools that you have faith in tools are just tools. They work, or they dont work. Its people you have faith in or not. Yeah, sure, Im still optimistic I mean, I get pessimistic sometimes but not for long.

: Its been 10 years since the PC revolution started. Rational people can debate about whether technology has made the world a better place

: The worlds clearly a better place. Individuals can now do things that only large groups of people with lots of money could do before. What that means is, we have much more opportunity for people to get to the marketplace not just the marketplace of commerce but the marketplace of ideas. The marketplace of publications, the marketplace of public policy. You name it. Weve given individuals and small groups equally powerful tools to what the largest, most heavily funded organizations in the world have. And that trend is going to continue. You can buy for under $10,000 today a computer that is just as powerful, basically, as one anyone in the world can get their hands on.

Microsofthas had two goals. One was to copy the Mac and the other was to copy Lotus success in the spreadsheet. And over the course of the last 10 years, Microsoft accomplished both of those goals. And now they are completely lost.

They were able to copy the Mac because the Mac was frozen in time. The Mac didnt change much for the last 10 years. It changed maybe 10 percent. It was a sitting duck. Its amazing that it took Microsoft 10 years to copy something that was a sitting duck. Apple, unfortunately, doesnt deserve too much sympathy. They invested hundreds and hundreds of millions of dollars into R&D, but very little came out They produced almost no new innovation since the original Mac itself.

Steve Jobs in 1994: The Rolling Stone InterviewJune 16, 1994, reprinted in Jeff Goodell,

When you grow up you tend to get told that the world is the way it is and your life is just to live your life inside the world. Try not to bash into the walls too much. Try to have a nice family, have fun, save a little money.

Thats a very limited life. Life can be much broader once you discover one simple fact: Everything around you that you call life was made up by people that were no smarter than you and you can change it, you can influence it, you can build your own things that other people can use.

Santa Clara Valley Historical Association

(1994)Steve Jobs: Visionary Entrepreneur, Silicon Valley Historical Association]Steve Jobs: Secrets of Life quote, Santa Clara Valley Historical Association, YouTube]

Im convinced that about half of what separates the successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance. It is so hard.

You put so much of your life into this thing. There are such rough moments in time that I think most people give up. I dont blame them. Its really tough and it consumes your life. If youve got a family and youre in the early days of a company, I cant imagine how one could do it. Im sure its been done but its rough. Its pretty much an eighteen hour day job, seven days a week for awhile.

Unless you have a lot of passion about this, youre not going to survive. Youre going to give it up. So youve got to have an idea, or a problem or a wrong that you want to right that youre passionate about otherwise youre not going to have the perseverance to stick it through. I think thats half the battle right there.

The Computerworld Smithsonian Awards Program Oral History Interview, Advice for Future Entrepreneurs (20 April 1995)

John Sculleyruined Apple and he ruined it by bringing a set of values to the top of Apple which were corrupt and corrupted some of the top people who were there, drove out some of the ones who were not corruptible, and brought in more corrupt ones and paid themselves collectively tens of millions of dollars and cared more about their own glory and wealth than they did about what built Apple in the first place which was making great computers for people to use.

Smithsonian Awards Program oral history (20 April 1995)

We believe its the biggest advance in animation sinceWalt Disneystarted it all with the release of Snow White 50 years ago.

If I knew in 1986 how much it was going to cost to keep Pixar going, I doubt if I would have bought the company.

You know, Ive got a plan that could rescue Apple. I cant say any more than that its the perfect product and the perfect strategy for Apple. But nobody there will listen to me.

: As a kid, I read an article in the Scientific American. It measured the efficiency of locomotion of various species on the planet. Bears. Chimpanzees. Raccoons. Birds. Fish. How many kilo-calories per kilometer did they spend to move? Humans were measured too. And the condor won. It was the most efficient. Humankind came in with an unimpressive showing about a third of the way down the list. But somebody there had the brilliance to test a human riding a bicycle. We blew away the condor. Off the charts.

This really had an impact on me. Humans are tool builders. We build tools that can dramatically amplify our innate human abilities. We ran an ad for this once that the personal computer is the bicycle of the mind. I believe that with every bone in my body.

: Part of what made the Macintosh great was that the people working on it were musicians, poets, and artists, and zoologists, and historians. They also happened to be the best computer scientists in the world. But if it hadnt been computer science, these people would have been doing amazing things in other fields. We all brought to this a sort of liberal arts air, an attitude that we wanted to pull the best that we saw into this field. You dont get that if you are very narrow.

: How does the Web affect the economy?

: We live in an information economy. The problem is that informations usually impossible to get, at least in the right place, at the right time. The reason Federal Express won over its competitors was its package-tracking system. For the company to bring that package-tracking system onto the Web is phenomenal. I use it all the time to track my packages. Its incredibly great. Incredibly reassuring. And getting that information out of most companies is usually impossible.

But its also incredibly difficult to give information. Take auto dealerships. So much money is spent on inventorybillions and billions of dollars. Inventory is not a good thing. Inventory ties up a ton of cash, its open to vandalism, it becomes obsolete. It takes a tremendous amount of time to manage. And, usually, the car you want, in the color you want, isnt there anyway, so theyve got to horse-trade around. Wouldnt it be nice to get rid of all that inventory? Just have one white car to drive and maybe a laserdisc so you can look at the other colors. Then you order your car and you get it in a week.

Robert X. Cringley for a Public Broadcasting System [PBS] television series, Triumph of the Nerds (1995),The Lost Interview: Steve Jobs Tells Us What Really Matters,

The desktop computer industry is dead. Innovation has virtually ceased. Microsoft dominates with very little innovation. Thats over. Apple lost. The desktop market has entered the dark ages, and its going to be in the dark ages for the next 10 years, or certainly for the rest of this decade.

As quoted inSteve Jobs: The Next Insanely Great Thing in

When youre young, you look at television and think, Theres a conspiracy. The networks have conspired to dumb us down.

But when you get a little older, you realize thats not true. The networks are in business to give people exactly what they want. Thats a far more depressing thought. Conspiracy is optimistic! You can shoot the bastards! We can have a revolution! But the networks are really in business to give people what they want. Its the truth.

[Miele] really thought the process through. They did such a great job designing these washers and dryers. I got more thrill out of them than I have out of any piece of high tech in years.

Creativityis just connecting things.

When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didnt really

something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. Thats because they were able to connect experiences theyve had and synthesize new things.

And thereasonthey were able to do that was that theyve had moreexperiencesor they havethoughtmore about their experiences than other people

… Unfortunately, thats too rare a commodity. A lot of people in our industry havent had very diverse experiences. So they dont have enough dots to connect, and they end up with very linear solutions without a broad perspective on the problem. The broader ones understanding of the human experience, the better design we will have.

Interviewed with Wired:Gary Wolf. Steve Jobs: The Next Insanely Great Thing(February 1996)

If I were running Apple, I would milk the Macintosh for all its worth and get busy on the next great thing. The PC wars are over. Done. Microsoft won a long time ago.

Human minds settle into fixed ways of looking at the world. Thats always been true and its probably always going to be true and I think… Ive always felt that death is the greatest invention of life. Im sure that life evolved without death at first, and found that without death life didnt work very well. Because it didnt make room for the young, who didnt know how the world was fifty years ago, who didnt know how the world was twenty years ago. Who saw it as it is today without any preconceptions, and saw and dreamed how it could be based on that. Who were not satisfied based on the accomplishments of the last thirty years, but who were dissatisfied because the current state didnt live up to their ideals. Without death there would be very little progress.

interview with Daniel Morrow (April 1995)

I was worth about over a million dollars when I was twenty-three and over ten million dollars when I was twenty-four, and over a hundred million dollars when I was twenty-five and it wasnt that important because I never did it for the money.

Triumph of the Nerds: The Rise of Accidental Empires

The only problem with Microsoft is they just have no taste. They have absolutely no taste. And I dont mean that in a small way, I mean that in a big way, in the sense that they dont think of original ideas, and they dont bring much culture into their products.

I am saddened, not by Microsofts success I have no problem with their success. Theyve earned their success, for the most part. I have a problem with the fact that they just make really third-rate products.

We have always been shameless about stealing great ideas.

We hired truly great people and gave them the room to do great work. A lot of companies […] hire people to tell them what to do. We hire people to tell us what to do. We figure were paying them all this money; their job is to figure out what to do and tell us.

radio interview by Terry , audio 26:30/31:05

The management philosophy here really is to give people enough rope to hang themselves. We hire people to tell us what to do. Thats what we pay them for.

I wish him the best, I really do. I just think he and Microsoft are a bit narrow. Hed be a broader guy if he had droppedacidonce or gone off to anashramwhen he was younger.

OnBill Gatesas quoted inCreating Jobs in

Youve got to start with the customer experience and work backwards to the technology

May 1997, World Wide Developers Conference(online video)52:15/52:22

The products suck! Theres no sex in them anymore!

On products at Apple, just before his return to it

Apple has some tremendous assets, but I believe without some attention, the company could, could, could Im searching for the right word could, could die.

On his return as interim CEO of Apple, as quoted in

Nobody has tried to swallow us since Ive been here. I think they are afraid how we would taste.

At the annual Apple shareholder meeting (22 April 1998)

It looks like its from another planet. A good planet. A planet with better designers

Introduction of the firstiMaccomputer in Cupertino, California, (6 May 1998)

iMac is next years computer for $1,299, not last years computer for $999.

Introduction of the firstiMaccomputer in Cupertino, California, (6 May 1998)

But in the end, for something this complicated, its really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people dont know what they want until you show it to them.

Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have. When Apple came up with the Mac, IBM was spending at least 100 times more on R&D.

Its not about money. Its about the people you have, how youre led, and how much you get it.

(9 November 1998); also quoted inTIME digital 50 in

I think Pixar has the opportunity to be the next Disney not replace Disney but be the next Disney.

I found that there were these incredibly great people at doing certain things, and that you couldnt replace one of these people with 50 average people. They could just do things that no number of average people could do.

Steve Jobs at 44, Time (Michael Krantz and Steve Jobs, Oct. 10, 1999)

We think basically you watchtelevisionto turn yourbrainoff, and you work on yourcomputerwhen you want to turn your brain on.

Thesystemis that there is no system…

I think if you do something and it turns out prettygood, then you should go do something else wonderful, not dwell on it for too long. Just figure out whats next.

We made the buttons on the screen look so good youll want to lick them.

On Mac OS Xs Aqua user interface, as quoted in

Youve baked a really lovely