Global Warming

of heat. When scientists add up all of the heat warming the oceans, land, and atmosphere and melting the ice, they find our climate is accumulating 4 Hiroshima atomic bombs worth of heat every second.

This warming is due to more heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels means we are emitting billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide every year. This is the main contributor to global warming.

To communicate the sheer amount of heat our planet is accumulating, we have created this widget, embeddable on blogs and also available as a Facebook app, an iPad app, and an iPhone app. To help get the word out on just how much global warming our planet is experiencing, add the widget to your own blog or use the widget on Facebook, like it and share it.

To get the iPhone or iPad app, visit this site on your device and use the big Get… button to get instructions. The app is not available through the Apple App Store.

The earth has warmed rapidly over the past century due mainly to human activity, and especially over the past few decades. The increased greenhouse effect has warmed the land and air and melted ice, but most of it (about 90%) has gone into heating the oceans. Several Skeptical Science contributors worked together to publish a scientific paper1which combined the land, air, ice, and ocean warming data. It found that for recent decades the earth has been heating at a rate of 250 trillion Joules per second.

Joules per second is a difficult unit of measure to appreciate, and is especially foreign to people who are unfamiliar with science. This widget attempts to put that heating into terms that are easier to visualize. 250 trillion Joules per second is equivalent to:

Detonating four Hiroshima atomic bombs per second

Experiencing two Hurricane Sandys per second

Enduring four 6.0 Richter scale earthquakes per second

Being struck by 500,000 lightning bolts per second

Exploding more than eight Big Ben towers, with every inch packed full of dynamite, per second

The earths climate system absorbs heat in many different ways. Increases in the temperatures that people experience day to day are only one of several reservoirs for accumulating heat. While changes in the atmosphere are the easiest to recognize, they are also the most variable and subject to noise. Changes in the ocean, where most of the heat is going, have been more steady, while the melting of vast stores of ice is accelerating. The earth continues to warm, day after day, at a concerning rate.

When the energy from all of the earths heat reservoirs is combined, the clear, decades long trend is unequivocal and staggering. With the exception of short hiatus periods, the earth has been gaining heat, virtually continuously, at an average rate of 250trillionJoules per second, and this trend shows no serious sign of ending.

Without greenhouse gases, the temperature at the surface of the earth would be a mere -15C (5F). Life on earth is made possible by greenhouse gases.

The earths atmosphere is mostly transparent to incoming sunlight, which passes through and warms the surface of the earth. Warm objects in turn emit another wavelength of light, one invisible to the human eye, termed infrared radiation. Like visible light, infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere and into space.

But small traces of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, arenottransparent to infrared radiation. They absorb and re-emit that energy, trapping some of that heat within the atmosphere.

Changes in the climate are visible all around us. Some are subtle and seemingly inconsequential, but these changes are accelerating and undeniable.

Spring comes earlier. Tree lines and species are migrating poleward and upward. Glaciers and Arctic ice are retreating at an alarming rate4. Sea levels are rising5. Every day, more and more studies point towards a changing and warming world in new and sometimes unexpected ways.

The indicators that recent climate change is the result of burning fossil fuels, rather than from some unknown natural variation, are clear and consistent with what we do know.

There are subtle differences to how the world will warm due to greenhouse gases compared with other potential sources (such as an increase in the warmth of the sun). Most importantly, scientists know that greenhouse gases would cause the upper atmosphere to cool rather than warm.

We also know that the source of the additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is due to burning fossil fuels. The carbon in fossil fuels differs from atmospheric carbon because it has less of the isotope known as13C (Carbon-13), a heavier-than-normal version of carbon. Plants generally prefer the lighter and more common12C (Carbon-12) for photosynthesis, so fossil fuels, which are produced from decayed plant matter, are deficient in13C. As a result, when we burn fossil fuels we cause the percentage of 13C in the atmosphere to drop, and this change has been detected.

Scientists have established that climate change greater than 2C (4F) will likely be extremely dangerous. We are likely to have committed our planet to that degree of warming when atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations reach 450 ppm (parts per million). The natural, pre-industrial level of carbon dioxide (CO2) was around 285 ppm. The level of CO2is currently near 400 ppm.

That level of carbon dioxide, 400 ppm, has not been seen in the atmosphere for millions of years.

At the current rate, adding 2 ppm per year, we will reach 450 ppm around the year 2038, a mere 25 years from now.

Not all effects of climate change can be anticipated, and not all effects that are anticipated may come to pass, but the number of expected, negative impacts on human society present a clear and worrying danger.28Some of these impacts are already being felt, to varying degrees, although many will not seriously present themselves until temperatures increase by 2C or more (although we have already committed to more than 1.4C of warming, depending on actual climate sensitivity).

Ecosystem changes, species range shifts and extinctions

Increased and more frequent damage from storms, fires and floods

Changes and increases in disease vectors

Increased morbidity and mortality from heat waves, floods and droughts

It is important to realize that no matter how strong these impacts are felt now, they will grow worse over time, and when they do, we will have no ability to reverse any of them.

More than 90% of all heat being absorbed by the earth, each and every day, is going into the oceans.

The ocean, when viewed from a climate perspective, is often considered in three layers:

2000 meters down to the bottom (average is about 3800 meters).

For some time, scientists believed that ocean warming would be restricted to the upper 700 meters and that global warming would take a very long time to penetrate deeper than that. Recent studies2and modern measurement techniques have shown, however, that the ocean below 700 meters is heating as well, and the amount of energy that it takes to do so is staggerring.

Scientists2use ocean heat content measurements fromARGO floats, as well as data from expendable bathythermographs (XBT) and mechanical bathythermographs (MBT).

Argois an international project to collect information on the temperature and salinity of the upper part of the worlds oceans. Argo uses robotic floats that spend most of their life drifting below the ocean surface, reaching depths of 2000m and spending periods of approximately 10 days below the surface. Floats take temperature and salinity measurements as they rise to the surface. After surfacing they transmit their data to satellites and then submerge to repeat the data collection cycle. Currently, there are roughly 3000 floats producing 100,000 temperature/salinity profiles per year.

A bathythermograph is an instrument which has a temperature sensor and is thrown overboard from ships to record pressure and temperature changes as it drops through the water. These were the main instruments used to measure OHC before the ARGO float network was deployed starting about a decade ago to provide more accurate and consistent data.

The ocean accounts for more than 90% of the heat absorbed by the earth in the past 30 years.

The total increase in heat content of the oceans over the period from 1955-2010 was 24 x 10

(240,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) Joules.

The energy absorbed by the oceans will not quickly dissipate.

As the ocean warms it expands, leading to marked sea level rise.

Increased ocean temperatures help to warm the atmosphere.

Increased ocean temperatures help to generate and intensify storms.

Warmer waters, combined with ocean acidification, are pushing some forms of marine life beyond their limits.

Changes in the temperature of the earths atmosphere are the easiest to measure and the most obvious in an individuals personal experience, but the atmosphere is also the most variable. One very warm year can be followed by several cold ones, while one region may experience an unusual cold snap while many other parts of the globe endure record warmth. Many factors can influence global atmospheric temperatures over short time frames of a few years, which in turn disguises the insistent, uninterrupted warming which is occurring overall.

Nevertheless, the atmosphere has warmed by 0.8C (1.4F) in the past century. This warming is more exaggerated at the poles, leading to even greater swings in temperatures further from the equator. Yet it still accounts for only 2% of total heat absorbed by the earths climate.

Scientists and statisticians have worked together to try to quantify and eliminate the most obvious forms of variability in global atmospheric temperatures by using standard statistical methods. In one study6, the authors found that after removing the influence of the most significant three factors (ENSO events, solar variations, and aerosols) the seemingly chaotic, drunken meanderings of the earths temperature straightened into a clear, steady increase in global temperatures.

In particular, in the past decade, a quiet sun, an increase in La Niña (cold) events, and an increase in aerosols have worked totemporarilyslow global warming. This sort of hiatus period is often seen in climate models, when negative factors happen to combine to temporarily overwhelm the global warming signal. It is clear, however, from the evidence that any respite is temporary.

The atmosphere, ocean, land and ice continue to absorb heat, and global warming is going to continue well into our future.

The Pacific is not only the worlds largest ocean, but it also boasts by far the largest expanse of water along the equator, where the suns rays are strongest. Periodic events, termed El Niño and La Niña, lead to three common states in the equatorial regions of the Pacific. These states in turn affect air temperatures and precipitaiton around the globe, and so are keys to understanding and predictingshort-termclimate variations.

El Niño events denote the spread of warmer than usual waters across much of the equatorial Pacific. This raises temperatures globally.

La Niña events denote the piling up of warmer waters in the western Pacific and the spread of cooler than usual waters across the eastern Pacific, off the coast of South America. This reduces temperatures globally.

ENSO neutral conditions, when neither an El Niño nor a La Niña is present, is the third state.

One way to view temperature changes without the confusing influences of ENSO events is to compare apples to apples. Compare all El Niño events to each other, La Niña to each other, and neutral conditions. When this is done, again, the constant, upward trend in global temperatures becomes clear.

The sun supplies virtually all of the energy that fuels the earths climate, butchangesin solar activity are necessary to account for changes in the earths climate. While the sun did warm slightly in the early part of the Twentieth century, it has since begun to quiet again. These minor changes in solar output, however, are not nearly strong enough to account for warming this century, although they do contribute somewhat to dampening recent anthropogenic warming. A hot sun, for example, emits roughly 1367 Watts/meter2, while a cool sun emits 1365.5 Watts/meter2, a difference between hot and cold of only about one tenth of one percent.

One study7used a statistical test on the temperature data, and found that while solar activity can account for about 11% of the global warming from 1889 to 2006, it can only account for 1.6% of the warming from 1955 to 2005, and had a slight cooling effect (-0.004C per decade) from 1979 to 2005. Multiple other studiesconfirm this conclusion.

Volcanoes emit sulfate aerosols which reflect incoming sunlight, cooling the planet. A large volcanic eruption such as the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 can have a global cooling effect of 0.10.3C (0.180.54F) for several years10.

However, mega-eruptions or a series of eruptions can have a cooling effect that take decades to wear off, giving a perceived warming effect as temperatures return to normal. Scientists have studied past volcanoes11, particularly over the past few centuries, and found that early 20thcentury warming resulted, in part, from a recovery from earlier periods of heavy vulcanism. In short, a lack of volcanic activity had some part in temperature rise over the first half of the 20thcentury. However, it has played little part in the modern global warming trend that began in the 1970s.

More recently, in the past decade, scientists12have found that the increase in greenhouse gases was exceeded by an even greater increase in sunlight-reflecting sulfate aerosols, which originate from the rapid industrialization of China. Chinese coal-burning in particular doubled in the 4 years from 2003-2007, and makes up some 77% of the 26% global aerosol increase over that time. Unfortunately, aerosols fall out of the atmosphere fairly quickly, while carbon dioxide remains there for centuries or longer.

Only 2.3% of warming goes into the atmosphere.

Within one year, from summer to winter, global mean tropospheric temperatures vary by as much as 1.5C (2.7F).

Year to year, from one season to the next, global mean tropospheric temperatures can vary by as much as 1C (1.8F).

Year to year, from one season to the next, global mean surface air temperatures can vary by as much as 0.2C (0.36°F).

A minimum of 17 years is needed to accurately detect and confirm a

a steady change in the rise of atmospheric temperatures.

A variety of natural (temporary) factors combined in the past decade to produce a strong

influence on atmospheric temperatures.

The known anthropogenic warming component has offset and overpowered natural cooling factors, so that a slight warming trend is still detectable.

Natural cooling factors (a preponderance of La Niña events, weak solar output, increased anthropogenic aerosols) are temporary, while the effects of anthropogenic CO

Scientists have successfully measured air temperatures around the globe, both at the surface and in the troposphere and stratosphere, in the present as well as in the distant past.

Surface air temperatures have been accurately measured and homogenized meaning made comparable using scientific instruments and rigorous collection and analysis techniques.

Tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures have been accurately measured using an array of long-lived satellites which measure the radiation, primarily microwaves, emitted by the atmosphere.

Past temperatures have been measured using a variety of different proxies, which have been compared to check their validity and confirm their accuracy. Proxy methods include the measurement of the frequency of stable atmoic isotopes, such as17O and18O (heavy hydrogen), in ice cores and ocean sediments, the evaluation of ancient pollen, flora and fauna in lake and ocean sediments,and other methods.

Until 2001, scientists had mostly concentrated on detecting heat uptake by the atmosphere and oceans and by melting ice. That year, however, a group of scientists published a study3which attempted to measure the heat uptake by the lithosphere the outermost rocky shell of the earth. That study found that heat absorbed by land actually roughtly matches the amount of heat absorbed by melting ice (such as the Greenland Ice Sheet, polar ice caps, and glaciers). The heat absorbed (only) by land also substantially matches that absorbed to date by the atmosphere.

Thus, the heat uptake by the continents is a tangible and necessary component in computing the total increase in heat in the entire earth system due to anthropogenic warming. This uptake accounts for about 2% of the heat absorbed by the earths climate system.

The earth houses vast amounts of water in the form of (once) permanent ice. This includes ice at the Arctic and Antarctic poles, the Greenland Ice Sheet, and over 130,000 glaciers. Due to global warming, much of this ice is melting at an alarming rate26. That permanent ice melt, in turn, absorbs a lot of heat and produces a vast amount of liquid water. Still, this ice melt only accounts for 2% of the total heat absorbed by the earths climate.

Arctic ice represents one pole (which is very different from the other). The Arctic is an ocean, surrounded by land, at one end of the globe (the North Pole). In that position, for a good portion of the year it receives no sunlight at all, while for an equal portion it receives extended, albeit very indirect, daylight at times for 24 hours a day.

With this dynamic, the water in the Arctic is able to freeze over completely during the winter. In the summer months, some Arctic ice has always melted, but prior to recent decades, the bulk of the ice remained completely frozen. Since 1979, scientists have been using satellites to track the ice extent, which is erratically but systematically shrinking. Satellite radar altimetry and satellite laser altimetry find that Arctic sea ice has also been thinning. The Arctic is expected to have a completely ice free summer sometime this century21. This means that each winter the ice is not re-freezing to the winter extent and volume of the previous year.

Year after year, despite the ongoing fluctuations, the Arctic is losing ice mass.

Antarctic ice represents one pole (which is very different from the other). Antarctica is a continent, at one end of the globe (the South Pole). In that position, for a good portion of the year it receives no sunlight at all, while for an equal portion it receives extended, albeit very indirect, daylight at times for 24 hours a day. Due to the altitude of its mountains it contains masses of ice which have no opportunity to melt, regardless of climate change.

At lower altitudes, the ice is subject to melting. Beyond this, much of the ice in Antarctica rests in the ocean, submerged by its own weight. But as the ocean waters warm, that ice is melting from beneath22. The result of this warming is that Antarctica is losing ice mass23.

Winter Antarcticsea iceextent is increasing, although it melts completely back to the Antarctic coast each summer, so it is of no consequence in the planetary heat budget. Ozone levels over Antarctica have dropped causing stratospheric cooling and increasing winds, which lead to more areas of open water that can be frozen24. In addition, the Southern Ocean is freshening because of increased rain and snowfall as well as an increase in meltwater coming from the edges of Antarcticas land ice25. Fresh water freezes more readily than salt water.

Arctic sea ice is thinning and losing mass.

Summer Arctic sea ice is gradually retreating, and may be completely gone within this century.

The Antarctic Ice Sheet is losing mass.

The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass.

The vast majority of the worlds glaciers are losing mass.

Melted ice will add dramatically to sea level rise.

Less ice means less reflected sunlight, which will add significantly to global warming.

Melting ice currently accounts for about 2% of the earths climate system heat uptake.

Scientists employ a variety of instruments and craft to measure ice mass. In the early 20thcentury, such measurements were restricted to visiting and directly observing the outer edges of the Arctic ice pack. Scientists still visit the reaches of the earth, using ever more sophisticated instruments, including floating buoys with arrays of sensors and cameras, to catalog the state of the Cryopshere the world of snow and ice on earth.

Today, changes in the elevation of large ice sheets are measured with extreme accuracy using both laser and radar altimetry. Sensors based on aircraft or satellites measure the distance from the sensor to the ice surface. By repeating the measurements over time, changes are determined. The twin GRACE satellites, launched by NASA in 2002, use lasers to measure minute changes in the distance between the two craft. These variations in distance in turn reflect variations in mass in the earth below, and so act as a measurement (again, over time) of changes in mass loss of the ice sheets. Other satellites use photography, both visible and infra-red, to catalog the ice extents in the Arctic and the size of glaciers.

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Skeptical Science, Nuccitelli et al. (2012) Show that Global Warming Continues

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Skeptical Science, Levitus et al. Find Global Warming Continues to Heat the Oceans

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Thomas Jacob, John Wahr, W. Tad Pfeffer, and Sean Swenson, Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise, Nature 482, 514518 (23 February 2012), doi:10.1038/nature10847

Skeptical Science, Satellites find over 500 billion tons of land ice melting worldwide every year, headlines focus on Himalayas

Skeptical Science, Latest GRACE data: record ice loss in 2010

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Skeptical Science, The Earth continues to build up heat

Skeptical Science, Is sea level rise accelerating?

Grant Foster and Stefan Rahmstorf (2011), Global temperature evolution 19792010, Environ. Res. Lett., 6, 044022, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/044022.

Skeptical Science, Foster and Rahmstorf Measure the Global Warming Signal

Skeptical Science, Did global warming stop in

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Skeptical Science, Lean and Rind Estimate Human and Natural Global Warming

Skeptical Science, Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions

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Skeptical Science, Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions

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Skeptical Science, Huber and Knutti Quantify Man-Made Global Warming

Skeptical Science, Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions

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Skeptical Science, How do volcanoes drive climate?

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Skeptical Science, How do volcanoes drive climate?

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Skeptical Science, Why Wasnt The Hottest Decade Hotter?

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Skeptical Science, Are glaciers growing or retreating? [Intermediate]

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Skeptical Science, Zebras? In Greenland? Really?

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Get the free in-depth guidgushing wi strategies to kickstart your ketosis AND aogenic grocery li

Get the free in-depth guide gushing with strategies to kickstart your ketosis AND a ketogenic grocery list

How To Get Into Ketosis In 24 Hours: Practical Tips and Tricks

bythatketoguyDec 2, 2016Exercise,NUTRITION,Reviews,SUPPLEMENTS,TIPS6 comments

Some people need to be in ketosis for medical reasons while others need to be in a fat-burning mode for athletic competitions. Whatever the reason, Ive conjured up tips on how to get into ketosis in 24 hours.

These tips arepurely from experience. While a lot of it has been backed by research,always take things with a grain of salt.There is no one size fits all diet that will turn you into superman.

When I first adopted the low carb high fat keto lifestyle a couple years back, I became obsessed with it. To meit felt like I just struck a goldmine.

It felt like some sort of esoteric subculture that no one knows about and those that do,have a leg up on their competition.

With this newfound obsession, I spent hours on researching, implementing, and documenting how to get into ketosis as fast as possible. The science is out there.Study after studyshowing how beneficial being in ketosis is.

Through trial and error, Ive conjured up these tips on how to get into ketosis in 24 hours. Some of it is probably obvious and common sense but that doesnt mean it isnt effective.

There are severalketo tipsyou can start implementing immediately to speed up the process of burning fats for energy.

The ones Ive found most effective Ive listed below:

Ive mentioned it in a previous post,here.

Intermittent fasting is like peanut butter and jelly, like batman and robin, like a fork and spoon, like Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump (just kidding).

By prolonging the time in which you eat your first meal, your body begins to enter a fat-burning stage (ketosis).I emphasize intermittent fasting with the ketogenic diet because it speeds up the whole process in depleting your glycogen storages.

My recommendation is to skip breakfast completely.

A popular protocol that many people praise is the 16:8 hour fast. This means you DO NOT eat for 16 hours then allow yourself to have an 8 hour eating window.

In my case,I stop eating food at 8PM then I stop eating anything that contains calories until 12PM the next day.

Caffeine has the powerful effect of curbing your appetite.

If you are just starting on intermittent fasting,drinking coffee in the morning will vastly help your hunger cravings.

Dont like drinking coffee? Buycaffeine pillsor drink a shit ton of tea.Whatever your preference in consuming caffeine, I definitely recommend some caffeine in order to adjust to fasting daily.

Once your body has become accustomed to fasting every day, you should cut the amount of caffeine you drink.

We have a hormone called ghrelin which is responsible for your hunger. Combining caffeine at the start of fasting will help your hunger hormone adjust to your new keto / IF lifestyle.

You need to be cautious of your stress levels when trying to go keto. Intense exercise can increase your cortisol (stress hormone) which will make it harder for you to get into a state of ketosis.

I highly recommendperforming exercises such as time under tension (TUT) workouts accompanied with slow cardio such as very light jogging, walking, hiking, and anything that doesnt involve your heart rate to go up too high.

Avoid high intensity exercises such as heavy compound lifts and sprintsat the beginning of your keto adaptation.

Once youre body has gotten used to using fat for energy, only then should you start performing high intensity exercises.

If you are already an intermediate / advanced lifter or athlete, thenyou dont need to start off with low intensity exercises.But if you are like the majority of the population who doesnt work out every single day,performing TUT exercises and slow cardio will drastically speed up your keto-adaptation.

Also known as medium chain triglycerides.

MCT oil is one of thequickest sources of energy that goes directly to your brain and body.It skips through your stomach and goes directly into your liver. It requires a very small amount of action from the liver which means it converts straight into energy in the form of ketones.

I wouldnt really consider it a supplement because its pretty much a food, a very efficient one.

But I do highly recommend it ESPECIALLY if youre just starting out and are looking on how to get into ketosis in 24 hours.

Even people who dont follow a ketogenic lifestyle use MCT oil because it is such a great source of energy.

Just be careful to not consume too much at the beginning. It has been known to cause some digestive issues if you take in more than the recommended dosage.

Click the link for the MCT oil that I use every day,here.

Bear with me here, Im not telling you that sleeping is going to magically kick you into a fat burning mode. But I have had multiple clients who were complaining about not being in ketosis even after restricting their carbs.

And most if not all of them proceeded to tell me how they were only getting around 6 hours of sleep.

Our body is able to repair itself only while we are sleeping. It is absolutely crucial to get at LEAST 7.5 hours of sleep a day at the beginning stages of your keto adaptation.

Once your body has become used to using fats as its main energy source, only then should you compromise sleep here and there.

quick tip:Our sleep cycles go in 90 minute increments. If youve ever felt even more tired after getting more than 8 hours of sleep, its because you woke up in the middle of a sleep cycle.

Try to adjust the time you are waking up by planning it around these 90 minute cycles. So if you cant get 7.5 hours of sleep or 9 hours of sleep, then opt for 6 hours of sleep. (90 minutes times 4 = 6 hours of sleep)

Not only will you get a direct source of clean energy (through ketones), being in ketosis has been known to alleviate a huge amount of mental deficiencies such asAlzheimers, Epilepsy, ADHD, Parkinsons and Autism.

Our ancestors have been eating a ketogenic lifestyle for thousands of years. Its only been in the past couple hundred years that humans have actually started eating large amounts of carbs.

Is it a coincidence that its only been in the past few decades that we have begun to have an obesity epidemic? I think not.

Sure the argument can be that our ancestors didnt live as long as we do, but thats because they didnt have the clean low carb high fat foods that we have readily available.The keto diet is all about eating grass fed organic meats and healthy low carb veggies.

There is a TON of evidence that proves how effective going keto can be for weight loss[*][*][*][*].

But what many people dont realize is, thebenefitsextend way past its body sculpting abilities.

Heres who else can benefit from the low carb, high fat lifestyle:

As mentioned above, being in a state of ketosis has been known to negate the symptoms of a host of mental diseases.

Its even being used to treat certain cancers. This is because cancer cells feed off of glucose, which comes from carbohydrates.By restricting carbs, the cancer cells cant thrive off of ketones therefore they die.

The ketogenic diet was first utilized for patients who were epileptic. Theres a similarity in the brain between patients with epilepsy and other mental diseases likeautism, ADHD, and Alzheimers. Scientists have been finding the correlation between ketones and how its actually the most efficient form of energy we as humans can use.

Click here for more information on what health ailments the ketogenic diet can help with.

Endurance runners tend to benefit the most from the ketogenic diet.

This is because our fat storages hold about20 timesmoreenergy than carbs can. The general full amount of carbs we can have at once is 2000 calories whereas our fat storages hold up to 40,000 calories in energy.

This is why you see a lot of ultra-marathoners adopting a low carb high fat diet. This prevents any sort of bonking that runners tend to experience towards the end of their run.

More studies are also showing how adopting a keto diet can be optimal for other performance athletes as well.

Other athletes canutilize thetargeted ketogenic dietin order to maximize performance.

If you are practicing offseason or generally dont have any serious competitions coming up soon, try incorporating a ketogenic diet during practice. Then when its time to compete, eat some carbs. By doing this, youre body will be in a fat burning stage and by complementing with some glucose, you will have that extra energy you need.

A well-known keto researcher,Dom DAgostinorecommends the same protocol. He recommends athletes to stay keto during practice, then carb load before a competition.

There are several factors that can hinder or progress your ketone production.

Stress is a major factor in your fat adaptation. The stress hormone (cortisol) is responsible for a host of health problems.

Just think about it, for the majority of us, weve been using glucose (from carbs) as our main source of energy our whole damn lives. Do you really expect your body to switch to a fat-burning mode without proper preparation?

You need to keep your stress levels as low as possible if you are trying to keto adapt in a short amount of time.

A few quick tips on keeping stress down:

Im not just saying this like some hippy. There are multiple studies that show how beneficial meditation is to our body and well-being. It is actually known to increase the grey matter in our brain and decrease our stress levels. If you can just start off with 5 minutes a day it will make the world of a difference. I recommend using the Headspace app if you are a smartphone user.

The light that emits from our computers, laptops, and TVs keep our brains in a mode of activity. If you find yourself using your phone in bed before you sleep, you are seriously screwing up your quality of sleep thus, increasing your stress levels. If anything, use the night-mode on your iPhone or f.lux on your laptop/computer to get rid of the blue light.

There is something about being in open spaces and actually having your feet on solid ground in nature that significantly decreases stress. If you can make it a habit to get outside for at least 10 minutes a day you will be much less stressed.

The amount of exercise you do every day is going to impact your chances of becoming keto adapted.

Ive found that those who combine a mixture of low intensity exercises as well as weight lifting to convert into a state of ketosis the fastest.

If you are just beginning your journey on working out and dieting, stick to low intensity exercises such as time under tension workouts and slow jogging or even walking.

I hope youve been able to get some quality advice on how to get into ketosis in 24 hours through this article.

Some of the things I have told you above might seem very obvious but sometimes its the things that are right in front of us that we tend to gaze over.

The routines, habits, and regimens that YOU can stick to are the ones you should consider implementing.

Everyone is looking for that quick fix these days.

Its not going to sound glamorous but its the routine that you can personally stick to that is going to produce the best results.

(Be sure to track your ketones with aketone meterto make sure youreactuallyin ketosis)

In summary, how to get into ketosis in 24 hours:

Drink coffee during your fasting period to prevent hunger cravings.

Perform low intensity exercises at the beginning if you are new to working out.

Get rid of any blue light after 6PM.

And that is by consuming exogenous ketones. I didnt know about them until recently but they have literally changed the whole ketogenic lifestyle for me and my clients.

There is no doubt in my mind that you can get into ketosis quickly by following the tips above, but it does require a lot of effort.

If you are looking to speed up the process, I suggest you giveexogenous ketonesa shot.

Click here for the ones I use and believe to be of highest quality.

By following the tips above, there is no doubt in my mind youll successfully reach ketosis and begin to receive all the benefits through a ketogenic diet. Be sure to sign up below if you want additional tips on the keto lifestyle.

If you are looking for a complete A to Z blueprint on the most effective ways to use ketosis for increased energy and fat loss, check out my Ketogenic Diet Roadmap for a comprehensive, science-backed program.

Keto Nootropic Review: The Brain Boosting Ketone Supplement

Lazy Keto Meals: Easy Ketogenic Recipes When Youre Pressed For Time

Mindset Is The Most Important Aspect To Dieting

Thank you for the information. Im going to share this with family and friends and most importantly I am going to go on Keto diet. I have lots of weight to lose and plenty of energy and sleep to gain from this.

thank you! I appreciate it and good luck

Does cream and sugar free syrup still count as coffee??

As long as you use it in moderation, but I would try to stay away and use MCT and coconut oil instead!

9 Reasons Why You Arent In A State of Ketosis – That Keto Guy- [] Heres a quick actionable guideline you can follow to help you reach ketosis. []

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Vancouver News Local Coverage from the Star Vancou

With hand tools, hoses and grit, wildfire ground crews are the foundation of forest firefighting.

The city of Burnaby issued a 72-hour notice to those occupying Camp Cloud on Wednesday, but protesters have said that three days was not enough time to comply with concerns raised over safety.

By now, the animals as well as the human residents of Summerland know to expect summer disruptions caused by wildfires in the dry and hot Okanagan Valley.

This young Vancouverite bought her first home by extending her search to the water. Shes one of a growing number to consider floating homes as a substitute for houses or condos.

Protesters fighting eviction of anti-Trans Mountain pipeline camp say they have religion on their side

Former flight attendant returns for second demonstration at YVR

After being asked to leave the airport by YVR staff for her demonstration against sexual harassment, Mandalena Lewis returned with several supporters and a letter from the BCCLA outlining her rights to free expression.

Later Friday, the Stone County Sheriffs Department released a list of the people who were killed. In addition to the Indiana family, five people were from Missouri, two were from Arkansas and one was from Illinois.

Despite two convictions in the death of James Jordan, a straightforward question still remains: Is the accepted narrative of James Jordans murder an accurate account of what happened?

At four hospital emergency departments in B.C., 567 people were admitted due to mental and behavioural disorders or overdoses from cannabis in a single year. Meanwhile, Danish researchers have found that of patients hospitalized with a pot-related mental condition, almost 50 per cent are diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolarism later on in life.

Surging cycling tourism is stirring tales of resentment near the south shore of Georgian Bay, and the stories include a case where a retired police officer ended up in handcuffs

Regulations that skew for big money will only empower the black market, says expert.

Edmonton patient says being over the legal limit does not make him impaired.

The questionnaire for the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program found 419 of 835 respondents had a patient who had used either authorized or unauthorized cannabis for some sort of medical relief.

Canada works with allies to combat foreign election interference

Still waiting for that adult conversation about taxes and public services

None of the tax cutters ever has the guts to be honest with people about the impact of reduced revenue on public services. But the pattern has been repeated over and over again across Canada.

Greyhounds announcement that its killing routes in Canada should spur us to look abroad to successful models of intercity bus service, David Collenette writes.

Vermont couple says their vitamin business suffered from bureaucracy and profit pressures; P&G says we had different views on the future

Comcast Corp. dropped its pursuit of 21st Century Fox Inc.s entertainment assets, clearing the way for rival Walt Disney Co. to acquire key pieces of Rupert Murdochs media empire after the two sides dueled in recent weeks.

The streaming-content giant has cut a deal with Sirius XM Holdings Inc. to create a comedy channel with the satellite-radio broadcaster, according to the companies.

Four-time all-star posts tribute on Instagram in wake of Wednesdays blockbuster trade to San Antonio.

By birdieing six of his first 14 holes, Woods had gone from even par and a crowded tie for 29th place into, temporarily, a five-way tie for first in this, his first Open Championship appearance since 2015.

Aledmys Diaz sparks offence at Rogers Centre after Sam Gaviglio delivers career-best start vs. Baltimore.

Comedian/musician Bo Burnham understands why people ask him why hed make a film about a 13-year-old schoolgirl rather than a 13-year-old schoolboy.

I feel emotional just talking to you about this, says Sandra Oh about her best performance to date, which debuts on Bravo July 22.

Shale Wagman won the prestigious Prix de Lausanne this year, which brought offers from around the world.

Food writer Karon Liu takes a trip back through the weird and wonderful foods of the 1990s.

Why spend your precious savings on new stuff from a store when you could shop your pals infinitely cooler closets or hit up thrift stores?

Having unprotected sex with multiple partners is a set-up for future problems you never considered, Ellie writes.

Joining a stranger for an unknown destination creates a setup for high risk, writes Ellie.

After 23 years as a science teacher, Ken Haselrig started his bird business, called Dovecote. Rain or shine, winter or summer, weddings and bar mitzvahs and funerals his birds fly them all. White doves used in such releases are actually homing pigeons, and after each event, the birds fly back to Haselrigs Pennsylvania home.

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Donald Trump took 5 different positions aborti in 3 days

Donald Trump took 5 different positions on abortion in 3 days

Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump stirred up controversy when he said there should be some sort of punishment for women who have abortions. Heres a look back at how he evolved into his pro-life views. (Jenny Starrs/The Washington Post)

You can see the exact moment last week that Donald Trump made up his mind on whether women would face criminal punishment once he signed new restrictions into law. He is at a town hall with MSNBCs Chris Matthews, and, after Matthews badgers him for a while, he finally answers the question.

The answer is … that, Trump says, eyes looking to the side in thought, there has to be some form of punishment. He punctuates has with a hand gesture. Done. Final.

But as it turns out and as it has turned out repeatedly over the course of his life that was not, in fact, Trumps final position on the subject. This past week alone, he has held multiple contradicting positions, including that one. So we figured that a timeline was in order, so that you could see the date and time and know, concretely, what Trumps abortion position was at that moment.

Trump co-sponsored a dinner at the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan (which he then owned) honoring Robin Chandler Duke, a former president of NARAL. He chose not to attend, theNew York Times reported, after his family was threatened by anti-abortion activists.

Ten years later, Trump appeared on NBC in an interview with Tim Russert. In a clip that has received newfound life during this election cycle, Trump defends his broadly liberal positions by explaining that he grew up in Manhattan, not Iowa.

Im very pro-choice, Trump says. I hate the concept of abortion. I hate it. I hate everything it stands for. I cringe when I listen to people debating the subject. But you still I just believe in choice.

Russert clarifies his original point: Would you ban partial-birth abortion? No, Trump replies.

At some point between 1999 and 2011, Trumps position on abortion changed. He explained the reason for his switchduringthe first debate of 2015.

[W]hat happened is friends of mine years ago were going to have a child, and it was going to be aborted. And it wasnt aborted. And that child today is a total superstar, a great, great child. And I saw that. And I saw other instances.

In 2011, as he was toying with running, hetold activistsat the Conservative Political Action Conference that, among other conservative positions, I am pro-life [and] against gun control.

Shortly after announcing his candidacy, Trumpappeared on CNNin an interview with Jake Tapper. He got a little tripped up.

TAPPER: Let me ask you about a few social issues because they havent been issues you have been talking about for several years. I know youre opposed to abortion.

TAPPER: Youre pro-choice or pro-life?

The interview with Matthews is taped, and Trump asserts that women who receive abortions once the procedure is illegal will face punishment. The men are involved will not, he adds.

Before the MSNBC town hall even airs, a spokesperson for Trump releases a statement changing what he told Matthews.

[email protected] on abortion: says it should be put back to the states and hes pro life, like /rPaTXxTnd3

Ali Vitali (@alivitali)March 30, 2016

About an hour later, Trumps campaignreleasesa more formal statement regarding abortion. Its different than what he said to Matthews and his initial statement.

If Congress were to pass legislation making abortion illegal and the federal courts upheld this legislation, or any state were permitted to ban abortion under state and federal law, the statement says, the doctor or any other person performing this illegal act upon a woman would be held legally responsible, not the woman. (Its worth noting that this is in line with the pro-life movements position.)

The statement includes a snippet written in the first person: My position has not changed like Ronald Reagan, I am pro-life with exceptions.

CBS releases an excerpt of its interview with Trump that aired Sunday morning.Asked againabout abortion, Trumps position seems to change yet again.

The laws are set now on abortion and thats the way theyre going to remain until theyre changed, he said, according to CBSs transcript. I wouldve preferred states rights. I think it wouldve been better if it were up to the states. But right now, the laws are set…. At this moment, the laws are set. And I think we have to leave it that way.

Understandably, this is not well-received. The pro-life group Susan B. Anthony Listrepliesthat he had disqualified himself as the GOP nominee if this were his position.

Trump also offered a reason for his initial comments to Matthews: Ive been told by some people that was an older line answer and that was an answer that was given on a, you know, basis of an older line from years ago on a very conservative basis.

Again before the program airs, the Trump campaignre-frameswhat the candidate said.

Mr. Trump gave an accurate account of the law as it is today and made clear it must stay that way now until he is president, it read. Then he will change the law through his judicial appointments and allow the states to protect the unborn. There is nothing new or different here.

Should Mr. Trumps position on abortion not be anything new or different again in the future, this article will be updated.

What Donald Trump is doing on the campaign trail

Businessman Donald Trump officially became the Republican nominee at the partys convention in Cleveland.

Businessman Donald Trump officially became the Republican nominee at the partys convention in Cleveland.

Donald Trump speaks at a campaign event at Trump Doral golf course in Miami.

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Trial Balloon for a Coup?

Either political analysis of authoritarian regimes, or interesting facts about science, depending on my mood.

Analyzing the news of the past 24 hours

The theme of this mornings news updates from Washington is additional clarity emerging, rather than meaningful changes in the field. But this clarity is enough to give us a sense of what we just saw happen, and why it happened the way it did.

Ill separate whats below into the raw news reports and analysis; you may also find thesefrom yesterday (heavily referenced below) to be useful.

(1) Priebus made two public statements today. One is thatthe ban on Muslims will no longer be applied to green card holders. Notably absent from his statement was anything about people with other types of visa (including long-term ones), or anything about the DHS power to unilaterally revoke green cards in bulk.

The other was thatthe omission of Jews from the statement for Holocaust Remembrance Day was deliberateand is not regretted.

A point of note here is that Priebus is the one making these statements, which is not normally the Chief of Staffs job. Ill come back to that below.

(2) Rudy Giulianitold Fox Newsthat the intent of yesterdays order was very much a ban on Muslims, described in those words, and he was among the people Trump asked how they could find a way to do this legally.

(3) CNN has adetailed story(heavily sourced) about the process by which this ban was created and announced. Notable in this is that the DHS lawyers objected to the order, specifically its exclusion of green card holders, as illegal, and also pressed for there to be a grace period so that people currently out of the country wouldnt be stranded  and they were personally overruled by Bannon and Stephen Miller. Also notable is that career DHS staff, up to and including the head of Customs & Border Patrol, were kept entirely out of the loop until the order was signed.

(4) The Guardian is reporting (heavily sourced) thatthe mass resignationsof nearly all senior staff at the State Department on Thursday were not, in fact, resignations, but a purge ordered by the White House. As the diagram below (byEmily Roslin v Praze) shows, this leaves almost nobody in the entire senior staff of the State Department at this point.

The seniormost staff of the Department of State. Blue Xs are unfilled positions; red Xs are positions which were purged. Note that the filled positions are not actually confirmed yet.

As the Guardian points out, this has an important and likely not accidental effect: it leaves the State Department entirely unstaffed during these critical first weeks, when orders like the Muslim ban (which they would normally resist) are coming down.

The article points out another point worth highlighting: In the past, the state department has been asked to set up early foreign contacts for an incoming administration. This time however it has been bypassed, and Trumps immediate circle of Steve Bannon, Michael Flynn, son-in-law Jared Kushner and Reince Priebus are making their own calls.

(5) On Inauguration Day, Trump apparentlyfiled his candidacyfor 2020. Beyond being unusual, this opens up the ability for him to start accepting campaign contributions right away. Given that a sizable fraction of the campaign funds from the previous cycle were paid directly to the Trump organization in exchange for building leases, etc., at inflated rates, you can assume that those campaign coffers are a mechanism by which US nationals can easily give cash bribes directly to Trump. Non-US nationals can, of course, continue to use Trumps hotels and other businesses as a way to funnel money to him.

(6) Finally, I want to highlight a story that many people havent noticed. On Wednesday, Reuters reported (in great detail) how 19.5% of Rosneft, Russias state oil company, has beensold to parties unknown. This was done through a dizzying array of shell companies, so that the most that can be said with certainty now is that the money paying for it was originally loaned out to the shell layers by VTB (the governments official bank), even though its highly unclear who, if anyone, would be paying that loan back; and the recipients have been traced as far as some Cayman Islands shell companies.

Why is this interesting? Because the much-malignedSteele Dossier(the one with the golden showers in it) included the statement that Putin had offered Trump 19% of Rosneft if he became president and removed sanctions. The reason this is so interesting is that the dossier said this in July, and the sale didnt happen until early December. And 19.5% sounds an awful lot like 19% plus a brokerage commission.

Conclusive? No. But it raises someveryinteresting questions for journalists to investigate.

I see a few key patterns here. First, the decision to first block, and then allow, green card holders was meant to create chaos and pull out opposition; they never intended to hold it for too long. It wouldnt surprise me if the goal is to create resistance fatigue, to get Americans to the point where theyre more likely to say Oh,anotherprotest? Dont you guys ever stop? relatively quickly.

However, the conspicuous absence of provisions preventing them from executing any of the next stepsI outlined yesterday, such as bulk revocation of visas (including green cards) from nationals of various countries, and then pursuing them using mechanisms being set up for Latinos, highlights that this does not meananysort of backing down on the part of the regime.

Note also the most frightening escalation last night was that the DHS made it fairly clear that they did not feel bound to obey any court orders.CBP continued to denyall access to counsel, detain people, and deport them in direct contravention to the courts order, citing upper management, and the DHS made a formal (but confusing) statement that they would continue to follow the Presidents orders. (See myupdates from yesterday, and the various links there, for details) Significant in todays updates is any lack of suggestion that the courts authority played a role in the decision.

That is to say, the administration is testing the extent to which the DHS (and other executive agencies) can act and ignore orders from the other branches of government. This is as serious as it can possibly get: all of the arguments about whether order X or Y is unconstitutional mean nothing if elements of the government are executing them and the courts are being ignored.

Yesterday was the trial balloon for a coup dtat against the United States. It gave them useful information.

A second major theme is watching the set of people involved. There appears to be a very tight inner circle, containing at least Trump, Bannon, Miller, Priebus, Kushner, and possibly Flynn, which is making all of the decisions. Other departments and appointees have been deliberately hobbled, with key orders announced to them only after the fact, staff gutted, and so on. Yesterdays reorganization of the National Security Council mirrors this: Bannon and Priebus now have permanent seats on the Principals Committee; the Director of National Intelligence and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff have both been demoted to only attending meetings where they are told that their expertise is relevant; the Secretary of Energy and the US representative to the UN were kicked off the committee altogether (in defiance of the authorizing statute, incidentally).

I am reminded of Trumps continued operation of a private personal security force, and his deep rift with the intelligence community. Last Sunday, Kellyanne Conway (likely another member of the inner circle)said thatIts really time for [Trump] to put in his own security and intelligence community, and this seems likely to be the case.

As per my analysis yesterday, Trump is likely to want his own intelligence service disjoint from existing ones and reporting directly to him; given the current staffing and roles of his inner circle, Bannon is the natural choice for them to report through. (Having neither a large existing staff, nor any Congressional or Constitutional restrictions on his role as most other Cabinet-level appointees do) Keith Schiller would continue to run the personal security force, which would take over an increasing fraction of the Secret Services job.

Especially if combined with the DHS and the FBI, which appear to have remained loyal to the President throughout the recent transition, this creates the armature of a shadow government: intelligence and police services which are not accountable through any of the normal means, answerable only to the President.

(Note, incidentally, that the DHS already has police authority within100 miles of any border of the US; since that includes coastlines, this area includes over 60% of Americans, and eleven entire states. They also have a standing force of over 45,000 officers, and just received authorization to hire 15,000 more on Wednesday.)

The third theme is money. Trumps decision to keep all his businesses (not bothering with any blind trusts or the like), and his fairly open diversion of campaign funds, made it fairly clear from the beginning that he was seeing this as a way to become rich in the way that only dedicated kleptocrats can, and this weeks updates definitely tally with that. Kushner looks increasingly likely to be the money-man, acting as the liaison between piles of cash and the president.

This gives us a pretty good guess as to what the exit strategy is: become tremendously, and untraceably, rich, by looting any coffers that come within reach.

Combining all of these facts, we have a fairly clear picture in play.

Trump was, indeed, perfectly honest during the campaign; he intends to do everything he said, and more. This should not be reassuring to you.

The regimes main organizational goal right now is to transfer all effective power to a tight inner circle, eliminating any possible checks from either the Federal bureaucracy, Congress, or the Courts. Departments are being reorganized or purged to effect this.

The inner circle is actively probing the means by which they can seize unchallenged power; yesterdays moves should be read as the first part of that.

The aims of crushing various groups  Muslims, Latinos, the black and trans communities, academics, the press  are very much primary aims of the regime, and are likely to be acted on with much greater speed than was earlier suspected. The secondary aim of personal enrichment is also very much in play, and clever people will find ways to play these two goals off each other.

If youre looking for estimates of what this means for the future, Ill refer you back to yesterdays post onwhat things going wrong can look like. Fair warning: I stuffed that post with pictures of cute animals for areason.

Note: If you want the full feed of what I write, follow me atand @YonatanZungeron Twitter. Theres too much to put on Medium!

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Either political analysis of authoritarian regimes, or interesting facts about science, depending on my mood.

Whats Going On With the Volcano?

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Eruption update of Puu , Halemaumau and the East Rift Zone in lower Puna.

Photo courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Wednesday, July 18, 2018, 11:23 AM HST

Klauea Volcano Lower East Rift Zone

Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. An increase in lava supply overnight produced several channel overflows threatening homes on Nohea street and additional overflows downstream on both sides of the channel. The overflows had stalled by mid-morning. South of Kapoho Crater, the surge produced an ʻaʻ flow that rode over the active southern flow that is still entering the ocean. The southern margin of the flow is located about 700 m (0.4 mi) from the boat ramp at Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at a few points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean.

No other fissures are active this morning.

Peles hair and other lightweight volcanic glass fragments from the lava fountain at Fissure 8 continue to fall downwind of the fissure, dusting the ground within a few hundred meters (yards) of the vent. High winds may waft lighter particles to greater distances. Residents are urged to minimize exposure to these volcanic particles, which can cause skin and eye irritation similar to volcanic ash.

The most recent map of lava flows can be found here:

HVO field crews are on site tracking the fountains, lava flows, and spattering from Fissure 8 as conditions allow and are reporting information to Hawaii County Civil Defense. Observations are also collected on a daily basis from cracks in the area of Highway 130; no changes in temperature, crack width, or gas emissions have been noted for several days.

Volcanic gas emissions remain very high from Fissure 8 and 22 eruptions. Continuing trade wind conditions are expected to bring VOG to the southern and western parts of the Island of Hawaii. VOG information can be found at

The ocean entry is a hazardous area.The interaction of lava with the ocean creates laze, a corrosive seawater plume laden with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic particles that drifts downwind and can irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs. Close to the ocean entry, flying debris from explosive interaction between lava and water is a primary hazard. Additionally, submarine magma-water interaction can result in explosive activity beyond the visible lava delta, creating a hazard that extends offshore. The lava delta is unstable because it is built up to 800 m (0.5 mi) from the former coastline on unconsolidated lava fragments and sand. This loose material can easily be eroded away by surf, causing the new land to become unsupported and slide into the sea.

Magma continues to be supplied to the Lower East Rift Zone. Seismicity remains relatively low although higher amplitude tremor is occasionally being recorded on seismic stations close to the ocean entry.

Additional ground cracking and outbreaks of lava in the area of the active fissures are possible at any time. Residents downslope of the region of fissures should remain informed and heed all Hawaii County Civil Defense messages and warnings.

At 1:28 a.m. HST July 18, a collapse event occurred beneath the summit of Klauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. Seismicity at the summit decreased immediately following the event; however, activity should increase leading up to the next collapse/explosion event, which is expected to occur tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit.

Sulfur dioxide emissions from the volcanos summit are very low. This gas and minor amounts of ash resuspended by wind are being transported downwind. Small bursts of ash and gas may coincide with the summit collapse/explosion events. The summit region is occasionally impacted by sulfur dioxide from the lower East Rift Zone eruption.

For forecasts of where ash would fall if such an explosion occur, please consult the Ash3D model output here:

Information on ash hazards and how to prepare for ashfall maybe found here:

Map Courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Klauea lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures, July 18, 10:00 a.m. HST

Given the dynamic nature of Klaueas lower East Rift Zone eruption, with changing vent locations, fissures starting and stopping, and varying rates of lava effusion, map details shown here are accurate as of the date/time noted. Shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015.

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Map Courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 6:00 a.m. on Tuesday, July 17

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 6 am on Tuesday, July 17. The fountain at Fissure 8 remains active, with the lava flow entering the ocean. The dominant ocean entry was on the new lobe that reached the sea near Ahalanui last week. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the thermal image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The thermal map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe.

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Photo courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

June 19, 2018- View of the southern edge of the growing Halemaumau crater (middle right) during helicopter-assisted work at Klaueas summit. The once-popular parking lot (closed since 2008) that provided access to Halemaumau is no longer–the parking lot fell into the crater this past week as more and more of the Klauea Crater floor slides into Halemaumau. The Crater Rim Drive road (middle) now ends at Halemaumau instead of the parking lot. The view is toward the west-northwest.

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Photo courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

– During the helicopter overflight on June 18, crews captured this image of the growing Halemaumau crater viewed to the southeast. With HVO and Jagger Museum sitting on the caldera rim (right side, middle where the road bends to the left) it is easier to comprehend the scale of subsidence at the summit. The estimated total volume loss is about 260 million cubic meters as of June 15th.

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Halemaumau aerial view on June 12, 2018

Photo courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

– Events at the summit of Klauea over the past few weeks have dramatically reshaped Halemaumau, shown here in this aerial view, which looks west across the crater. The obvious flat surface (photo center) is the former Halemaumau crater floor, which has subsided at least 100 m (about 300 ft) during the past couple weeks. Ground cracks circumferential to the crater rim can be seen cutting across the parking lot (left) for the former Halemaumau visitor overlook (closed since 2008). The deepest part of Halemaumau (foreground) is now about 300 m (1,000 ft) below the crater rim. The Halemaumau crater rim and walls continue to slump inward and downward with ongoing subsidence at Klaueas summit.

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Visit our keyboard shortcuts docs for detailsDuration:23 seconds

Video of the lava lake activity in Halemaumau Crater on April 9, 2018. This is a zoomed video from the observation deck at Jaggar Museum, which is about a mile from the eruption site. Video by Volunteer Ranger Russell Atkinson.

Please note the lava lake dropped on May 2, 2018 and the crater began collapsing soon after.

Resources for more information about the lava flows:

by phone at: (808) 935-0031 (7:45 am – 4:30 pm)

Photo Comparison – Drag the Arrows Left & Right

USGS overflight view of the episode 61G lava flow entering the ocean at Kamokuna on March 30, 2017

– Photos courtesy USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

USGS – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

– Following the December 31, 2016, lava delta collapse at Klauea Volcanos Kamokuna ocean entry, lava continued to flow into the sea without building a new lava delta, most likely because the lava was cascading down a steep offshore slope to deeper parts of the ocean. But in late March 2017, a new delta finally began to form, although it was obscured by steam during HVOs March 30 overflight (left photo). The thermal image at right shows lava streaming into the ocean from the leading edge of the delta (bright yellow area in center of image) and the adjacent heated seawater (discolored water in the photo). It also shows the trace of the active lava tube that carries lava from the vent to the sea (right side of image), as well as small breakouts of lava along the tube and surface flows near the Puʻu ʻʻ vent (top of image).

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likely have good finishesSophocles, 496 – 406 BCE

Time and project management seriesMy daily schedule:

Review how you spend your time in order to help you prioritize your goals and objectives. This exercise may help:

Text of the exercise:(See also theText/Java version)

Determine how you spend a typical 24-hour day:

Enter the hours or parts of hours for each activity, the total is 24 hours!

Dont be discouraged if you have to go back and change time spent on each activity.

Flashexercise contributed by Angela Tank, Bridgette Lynch; Dr. Brad Hokanson, Interactive Media (DHA 4384) School of Design, University of Minnesota; refinements by Steve Kladstrup, Independent Flash Developer, Minneapolis, MN.

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