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Peek() or Previous() ?

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on Sep 15, 2015 1:46 PM. Last modified byOleg Troyansky

This article was sparkled bythis discussion threadon Qlik Community. The question was: how to calculate the difference between dates that are stored in consecutive rows of a table? Three answers to the question suggested three different approaches. Lets analyze whats right, whats wrong and does it matter at all?

We typically use values from a previous row in the table for two common needs – either for calculating a difference between certain dates (or amounts), or for calculating a running balance of some kind (either numbering rows that belong to a certain entity, or calculating inventory balances, or calculating inventory age, etc…)

We know that any calculation involving multiple rows in a data table, requires two steps:

Usually, we need to compare the current value of a key field (lets call it ID) with the previous value of the same field. This way, we will know if this is still the same entity (product, customer, patient, etc…) or if its a brand new entity. Depending on the result of this comparison, we will calculate the second step slightly differently.

Once we know whether this row belong to the same entity or the new entity, we can perform our calculation that involves the previous values.

We also know that there are two functions that look quite similar to us,Peek()andPrevious(),that can help us retrieve the values from the previous row. So, the question at hand is – can we use either one of the two in both steps of our inter-record calculation, or should we prefer to use one vs. the other. Is it ever wrong to use on of the functions for one of the steps? Back to the Qlik Community discussion, the three answers to the question suggested the following:

1. Manish suggested to use the Previous() function in both steps:

2. Then, Sinan suggested to use the Peek function in both steps:

3. Then, I recommended to use the following rule of thumb:

Now, lets find out – is there a difference, what should we use and when? The following explanation is borrowed from my new book,QlikView Your Business, that you should certainly consider if you are serious about QlikView and Qlik Sense (shameless advertising!). If you already have the book in your hands, this explanation is on page 610.

ThePeek()function receives up to three parameters:

It returns the value of the specified field from the specified row of the specified table. When no table is specified, the current table is assumed. When no row is specified, the last loaded row is assumed. Row numbering begins with 0 for the first record, 1 for the second record, and so on. Negative row numbers allow you to retrieve values from the last row in the table (row -1), or the second last row (-2), and so on.

The data for the Peek() function is loaded from the previously loaded table in the associative QlikView database.

The Peek() function can be used in a load to retrieve data from the same table or from another table. It can also be used outside of a load, in which case the table name and the row number are mandatory.

Notice that both the field name and the table name need to be provided as strings, enclosed in single quotes.

Conversely, thePrevious()function only accepts a single parameter:

The expression is evaluated using data from the previous input record.The data is drawn directly from the input source,not necessarily from the QlikView database.This means that the expression can include fields that may not be stored in QlikView, as long as they are available in the source table. On the other hand,newly calculated fields that are created in QlikView in the same load cannot participate in this expression.

In most cases, the expression simply consists of a single field, and thats wherePrevious(Field)looks similar toPeek(Field). Notice that the field name does not need to be enclosed in quotes for thePrevious()function, because the parameter is not a string, but rather an expression or a direct field reference.

Both functions can be used in a LOAD that involves calculating a running balance of any kind, but not in the same way. Just to remind you, any calculation of a running balance by one or a fewkey dimensionsconsists of two steps:

Check if the current record is the first for the set of the

. This is done by comparing a set of

values from the current row with the same values from the previous row.

If this is the first record, restart the Balance from the current quantity (or from the beginning balance); otherwise, add the current quantity to the previous value of the Balance (depending on a specific scenario, you may be adding to or subtracting from the balance).

In the first step of this process, either one of the two functions can be used successfully. We recommend usingPrevious()to enable comparing expressions such as concatenatedkey dimensionvalues, as opposed to always comparing distinct fields. Another benefit is that unlike thePeek()function, thePrevious()function will not fail silently. If any field names are misspelled, you will know about it.

In the second part of the process (when calculating running balances), thePrevious()function cannot be used, because the Balance field is likely to be a new field that is being created in the same load. Since the field didnt exist before the statement was executed, the syntax checker wouldnt allow its use in the expression for thePrevious()function. In this case, thePeek()function wins, because of its string parameters and because of its silent fail. The field Balance may not exist at the beginning of the LOAD; however, it will be perfectly valid when it needs to be used for thePeek()function in the second row of the loaded table.

So, remember the following schema for any calculations of running balances:

This means usePrevious()in the IF condition and then usePeek()to calculate the running balance.

So, having read all that – what was the right answer to the Qlik Community question? In that particular case, when no running balances need to be calculated, all three answers are technically right. Both functions can be used equally well for calculating a difference between dates stores in consecutive rows. However, remember this rule of thumb for any calculations that involve running balances:

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CNNs Tapper Obama has used Espionage Act more than all previouadministratns

Your privacy is important to us. We have updated our privacy policy to better explain how we use data on this site.Read it here

The Obama administration has used the Espionage Act to go after whistleblowers who leaked to journalists … more than all previous administrations combined.

Jake Tapperon Thursday, January 2nd, 2014 in a broadcast of CNNs The Lead with Jake Tapper

ByJon Greenbergon Friday, January 10th, 2014 at 10:00 a.m.

The federal criminal charges filed against National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden make it seven times that the Obama administration has used the Espionage Act against government workers who shared information with the press. In at least two instances, the governments investigations have delved into the practices of reporters and news organizations and put reporters in legal jeopardy.

This has raised red flags among defenders of the media. In a vigorous exchange onCNNsThe Lead, host Jake Tapper asserted to Ruth Marcus of theWashington Postthat the Obama administration has used the Espionage Act to go after whistleblowers who leaked to journalists … more than all previous administrations combined.

On one level, a simple tally would address Tappers claim and — spoiler alert — the raw numbers back him up. But a scrupulous vetting of the record uncovers important ambiguities in the entire business of talking about leaks in Washington.

Most tallies, like the one by theinvestigative service ProPublica, begin with Daniel Ellsberg and the release of the Vietnam War era documents known as the Pentagon Papers. Including Ellsberg, the government has used the Espionage Act 10 times to prosecute government workers who shared classified information with journalists. If we push back to 1945, there is one more case. So of those 11, seven have taken place while Barack Obama has been president.

Law professor David Pozen at Columbia University, has researched the culture of unauthorized disclosures in the nations capital and said generally, there has been an uptick in these prosecutions on Obamas watch..

Theres not really any doubt, Pozen said.The spirit of the assertion is correct.

The Justice Department does not quibble about number of prosecutions but in a statement to PunditFact, the department said: It is definitely not the case that anyone who leaks classified information is a whistleblower. Very few of those prosecuted in recent years for unauthorized disclosures even sought to be considered that way.

To take a couple of examples, in 2010, State Department contractor Stephen Kim was indicted for providing information about North Korea to Fox News. Later that year, Jeffrey Sterling, a Central Intelligence Agency officer, was indicted for sharing information with a journalist James Risen about Americas work to counter Irans nuclear program. Both defendants have pled not guilty.

There is little suggestion that whatever they might have revealed had to do with any government abuse or that the leakers wanted to raise broad policy concerns. TheLegal Information Instituteat Cornell School of Law defines a whistleblower as an employee who alleges wrongdoing by his or her employer of the sort that violates public law or tends to injure a considerable number of people.

No matter how broadly interpreted, Kim and Stirling dont seem to fit that definition. In astatement given to ProPublica, the Justice Department said it does not target whistleblowers who follow the rules, but we cannot sanction or condone federal employees who knowingly and willfully disclose classified information to the media or others not entitled to receive such information.

We raised this issue of who is and isnt a whistleblower with Tapper and he said in the fast pace of a live interview, he might have wanted to use slightly different words to make his point.

It would be better to say leakers, many of whom are seen as whistleblowers, instead of just whistleblowers, Tapper said. If for no other reason that the focus would be on the administrations aggressive use of the Espionage Act to clamp down on whistleblowing and journalism that holds the U.S. government accountable.

As for the claim, though, it does not matter much. If you pull out the Kim and Stirling cases, by the same standard, youd likely drop one of the pre-Obama cases too and that would still leave the Obama administration using the Espionage Act five times compared to three times before he took office.

Other factors could muddy the tally. The Obama administration inherited two of the cases from President George W. Bushs Department of Justice. The indictments took place under Obama but the wheels started turning before him, Pozen said. So potentially, someone could argue that these cases are not really his prosecutions. On the other hand, that doesnt affect the technical accuracy of Tappers claim.

In addition, administrations have a variety of ways to crack down on unauthorized disclosures. Tappers focus on the Espionage Act might be accurate, but it overlooks other tactics used by previous White House regimes, said Elizabeth Goitein of the Brennan Center at New York University School of Law.

Instead of criminally prosecuting media leaks, the government has relied on administrative sanctions and penalties, Goitein said.

These are extremely difficult to track because just about all of the details are protected by personal privacy laws.

Goitein pointed to other laws that can and have been brought to bear, including Section 641 of Title 18 in the U.S. Code. It prohibits theft of government property. It was used in 2002 against a Drug Enforcement Agency official who gave sensitive, not classified, information to a London newspaper. While capital punishment isnt an option, in other respects, a conviction under Section 641 can be just as harsh as a violation under the Espionage Act. But neither a charge of theft nor an administrative sanction change the accuracy of the specific details in Tappers claim.

Alook at the reasons behind the uptick under Obama lies outside the scope of this fact-check. For a complete discussion, we recommend Pozens recent article,The leaky leviathan:Why the government condemns and condones unauthorized disclosures of information. Among other factors, digital technology both makes leakers easier to find and opens the door to disclosures on a grand scale as in the Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden cases.

Tapper said more than all previous administrations combined, the Obama administration has used the Espionage Act to go after whistleblowers who leak to journalists. The number of cases involving that law support Tappers statement. There is reasonable debate over whether the whistleblower label applies to all cases and Tapper said he could have been more precise.

However, the Justice Department does not challenge the basic figures and the experts we contacted affirmed the general accuracy of the claim.

Published: Friday, January 10th, 2014 at 10:00 a.m.

Subjects:CrimeHomeland SecurityLegal Issues

CNN,The Lead with Jake Tapper, Jan. 2, 2013

Legal Information Institute,Definition of whistleblower, Cornell School of Law

United States Code,Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act, 1998

Congressional Research Service,The Whistleblower Protection Act: An overview, March 12, 2007

Committee to Protect Journalists,The Obama Administration and the Press: Leak investigations and surveillance in post-9/11 America,Oct. 10, 2013

Department of Justice,Statement of Lisa Monaco, assistant attorney general, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Feb. 9, 2012

Harvard Law Review,The leaky leviathan:Why the government condemns and condones unauthorized disclosures of information, December 2013

Washington Post,A rare peek into a Justice Department leak probe, May 19, 2013

ProPublica,Charting Obamas crackdown on national security leaks, July 30, 2013

New York Times,Blurred line between espionage and truth, Feb. 26, 2012

New York Times,Leak offers look at effort by U.S. to spy on Israel, Sep. 5, 2011

Time Magazine, ARMED FORCES: The Nation Can Relax, July 8, 1957

Sarasota Herald Tribune,Crusading Colonel Nickersons court martial to start Tuesday, June 20, 1957

Placide D. Nicaise, self published,Huntsville and the von Braun Rocket Team, 2003

Interview, David Pozen, law professor, Columbia University School of Law, Jan. 8, 2014

Email interview, Elizabeth Goitein, co-director, Brennan Centers Liberty and National Security Program, New York University School of Law, Jan. 7, 2014

Interview, Brian Fallon, Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Justice, Jan. 7, 2014

Email interview, Bob Turner, professor, Center for National Security Law, Univ. of Virginia Law School, Jan. 8, 2014

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Historical Records Stats

Average attempts before first victory: 6 (51 players)

Average attempts before second victory: 10 (17 players)

Average attempts before third victory: 14 (8 players)

31.40 years (51 winners, 20 under 30)

32.94 years (17 winners, 13 over 30 years)

Teens Social Media

Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping Your World

24% of teens go online almost constantly, facilitated by the widespread availability of smartphones.

Aided by the convenience and constant access provided by mobile devices, especially smartphones,92% of teens report going online daily including 24% who say they go online almost constantly,according to a new study from Pew Research Center. More than half (56%) of teens defined in this report as those ages 13 to 17 go online several times a day, and 12% report once-a-day use. Just 6% of teens report going online weekly, and 2% go online less often.

Much of this frenzy of access is facilitated by mobile devices. Nearly three-quarters of teens have or have access1to a smartphone and 30% have a basic phone, while just 12% of teens 13 to 17 say they have no cell phone of any type. African-American teens are the most likely of any group of teens to have a smartphone, with 85% having access to one, compared with 71% of both white and Hispanic teens. These phones and other mobile devices have become a primary driver of teen internet use: Fully 91% of teens go online from mobile devices at least occasionally. Among these mobile teens, 94% go online daily or more often. By comparison, teens who dont access the internet via mobile devices tend to go online less frequently. Some 68% go online at least daily.

African-American and Hispanic youth report more frequent internet use than white teens. Among African-American teens, 34% report going online almost constantly as do 32% of Hispanic teens, while 19% of white teens go online that often.

Facebook is the most popular and frequently used social media platform among teens; half of teens use Instagram, and nearly as many use Snapchat

Facebook remains the most used social media site among American teens ages 13 to 17 with71% of all teens using the site, even as half of teens use Instagram and four-in-ten use Snapchat.

71% of teens use more than one social network site

Teens are diversifying their social network site use. A majority of teens 71% report using more than one social network site out of the seven platform options they were asked about. Among the 22% of teens who only use one site, 66% use Facebook, 13% use Google+, 13% use Instagram and 3% use Snapchat.

This study uses a somewhat different method than Pew Research Centers previous reports on teens. While both are probability-based, nationally representative samples of American teens, the current survey was administered online, while our previous work involved surveying teens by phone. A great deal of previous research has found that the mode of interview telephone vs. online self-administration can affect the results. The magnitude and direction of these effects are difficult to predict, though for most kinds of questions, the fundamental conclusions one would draw from the data will be similar regardless of mode. Accordingly, we will not compare specific percentages from previous research with results from the current survey. But we believe that the broad contours and patterns evident in this web-based survey are comparable to those seen in previous telephone surveys.

Facebookremains a dominant force in teens social media ecosystems, even as Instagram and Snapchat have risen into a prominent role in teens online lives.Asked which platforms they used most often, the overall population of teens in this sample (ages 13 to 17) reported that Facebook was the site they used most frequently (41% said that), followed by Instagram (20%) and Snapchat (11%).

Boys are more likely than girls to report that they visit Facebook most often (45% of boys vs. 36% of girls). Girls are more likely than boys to say they use Instagram (23% of girls vs. 17% of boys) and Tumblr (6% of girls compared with less than 1% of boys). Older teens ages 15 to 17 are more likely than younger teens to cite Facebook (44% vs. 35% of younger teens), Snapchat (13% vs. 8%) and Twitter (8% vs. 3%) as a most often used platform, while younger teens ages 13 to 14 are more likely than their older compatriots to list Instagram (25% vs. 17% of older teens) as a platform they visit most often.

The survey data reveals a distinct pattern in social media use by socio-economic status. Teens from less well-off households (those earning less than $50,000) are more likely than others to say they use Facebook the most: 49% of these teens say they use it most often, compared with 37% of teens from somewhat wealthier families (those earning $50,000 or more).

Teens from more affluent households are somewhat more likely than those from the least affluent homes to say they visit Snapchat most often, with 14% of those from families earning more than $75,000 saying Snapchat is their top site, compared with 7% of those whose families earn less than $30,000 annually. Twitter shows a similar pattern by income, with the wealthiest teens using Twitter more than their least well-to-do peers. It should be noted that some of these differences may be artifacts of differences in use of these sites by these different subgroups of teens.

As American teens adopt smartphones, they have a variety of methods for communication and sharing at their disposal. Texting is an especially important mode of communication for many teens. Some 88% of teens have or have access to cell phones or smartphones and 90% of those teens with phones exchange texts. A typical teen sends and receives 30 texts per day2

And teens are not simply sending messages through the texting system that telephone companies offer. Some 73% of teens have access to smartphones and among them messaging apps like Kik or WhatsApp have caught on. Fully 33% of teens with phones have such apps. And Hispanic and African-American youth with phones are substantially more likely to use messaging apps, with 46% of Hispanic and 47% of African-American teens using a messaging app compared with 24% of white teens.

Teenage girls use social media sites and platforms particularly visually-oriented ones for sharing more than their male counterparts do. For their part, boys are more likely than girls to own gaming consoles and play video games.

Data for this report was collected for Pew Research Center. The survey was administered online by the GfK Group using its KnowledgePanel, in English and Spanish, to a nationally representative sample of over 1,060 teens ages 13 to 17 and a parent or guardian from September 25 to October 9, 2014 and February 10 to March 16, 2015. In the fall, 1016 parent-teen pairs were interviewed. The survey was re-opened in the spring and 44 pairs were added to the sample. For more on the methods for this study, please visit the Methods section at the end of this report.

The survey question that asked about devices asked teens whether they have or have access to a list of five tools: smartphones, basic phones, desk or laptop computers, tablets and game consoles.

Unless otherwise specified, in this report we use the median for typical data for teens.

Sept. 25-Oct. 9, 2014 and Feb. 10-March 6, 2015 Teens Dataset

A Majority of American Teens Report Access to a Computer, Game Console, Smartphone and a Tablet

Mobile Access Shifts Social Media Use and Other Online Activities

About Pew Research CenterPew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary ofThe Pew Charitable Trusts.


Get the immediately preceding sibling of each element in the set of matched elements. If a selector is provided, it retrieves the previous sibling only if it matches that selector.

Given a jQuery object that represents a set of DOM elements, the.prev()method searches for the predecessor of each of these elements in the DOM tree and constructs a new jQuery object from the matching elements.

The method optionally accepts a selector expression of the same type that can be passed to the$()function. If the selector is supplied, the preceding element will be filtered by testing whether it match the selector.

Consider a page with a simple list on it:

To select the element that comes immediately before item three:

The result of this call is a red background behind item 2. Since no selector expression is supplied, this preceding element is unequivocally included as part of the object. If one had been supplied, the element would be tested for a match before it was included.

If no previous sibling exists, or if the previous sibling element does not match a supplied selector, an empty jQuery object is returned.

To selectallpreceding sibling elements, rather than just the precedingadjacentsibling, use the.prevAll()method.

Find the very previous sibling of each div.

For each paragraph, find the very previous sibling that has a class selected.

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Crystal Reports

Topic: Using previous functin

I am creating a report that reports document access. In the details area I have PEOPLE_1.FULL_NAME and GROUPS.GROUP_NAME on top of each other so both are displayed for each document. There is also a formula to display the type of rights for people and groups.

Because duplicates are displaying for each version of the document I used the previous function like this:


This works great for the groups but I also want to do the same for people, so I tried:



The result is the GROUPS and PEOPLE are not duplicated for each version of the document and the type of rights for each group are correct but only the first people rights are displayed, the rest are blank (as if the previous function is not working on people).

In formula workshop if you go to formatting formulas and expand details, you should see your report fields. You then define the conditions that they should be suppressed.

So for GROUP_NAME you would use the one you wrote, and for people you would write PEOPLE_1.FULL_NAME = previous (PEOPLE_1.FULL_NAME) there.

I have a formula that is an if statement that says if security.accessrights is a certain number then display a string. And this formula is working on both the GROUP and PEOPLE to give their accessrights. But because there are versions of the documents these PEOPLE and GROUPS are duplicating. So I put a Suppress If Duplicated on the formula and added the previous function indicated in my first post, but it only seems to work on either GROUP or PEOPLE but not both.

If you right-click — format field — suppress if duplicated I believe it will suppress the entire record. Unless you have found that it only suppresses the particular field (I had run into errors when I did a careless suppression and was missing important data).

In the formula workshop, under Formatting Formulas, on the Details section I have a formula I called RightsFormula. I right clicked on that formula and made a new Formatting Formula on Suppress If Duplicated.


I am suppressing the duplicate results that came up.

The duplicates were: the same GROUP and its rights would show up for each version of the document.

Using the previous function fixed this problem.

would it hurt the report to order by groups and people? If not, that is something to try. If it is being ordered by date, and the groups and people interleave….

I dont think that I fully understand what you are wanting. It sounds like you want to display rights for groups and people for a document that changes. If you do this in a group header, it will only look at the record that is current for that group header at that moment. If it is being done in the detail section, then the sort order will matter as to what the previous record is.

Thanks for trying to help. I think you have the basics of what I am trying to do, unfortunately I cannot change the grouping.

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